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Lear's Macaw Anodorhynchus leari

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Endangered B1ab(iii);D1+2 
Vulnerable B1ab(iii) 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Endangered
2012 Endangered
2009 Endangered
2008 Critically Endangered
2004 Critically Endangered
2000 Critically Endangered
1996 Critically Endangered
1994 Critically Endangered
1988 Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type continent
Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 3,900 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 5,200 medium
Number of locations 2 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 250-999 medium Estimated 2010
Population trend Unknown medium -
Number of subpopulations 2 - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 10.4 - - -
Population justification: The most recent population estimate is of 1,123 birds. Although the population is growing and thus this figure is likely to include a large proportion of sub-adults, the total number of mature individuals is thought to be at least 258, and so the population is placed in the band 250-999 mature individuals.
Trend justification: It underwent a long-term historical decline due to trapping, but population estimates remained fairly stable following its rediscovery in the wild in 1978 until the mid 1990s when numbers began to increase rapidly; while this may partly reflect improvements in survey methodology, there also has been a genuine increase owing to intensive conservation efforts.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Brazil Native Extant       Yes

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Brazil Raso da Catarina site factsheet
Brazil Sento Sé / Campo Formoso site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Savanna Dry suitable resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major resident
Altitude 400 - 800 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching / Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Rapid Declines High Impact: 8
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Very Rapid Declines High Impact: 9
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression / Trend Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Anodorhynchus leari. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/10/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/10/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Endangered
Family Psittacidae (Parrots)
Species name author Bonaparte, 1856
Population size 250-999 mature individuals
Population trend Unknown
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 3,900 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species