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Long-tailed Parakeet Psittacula longicauda

Justification
This forest-associated species occurs in the Sundaic lowlands where deforestation has been widespread in the recent past. It is consequently considered Near Threatened, because it is assumed to have experienced moderately rapid declines. It is not considered more threatened because it can use human-modified habitats.

Taxonomic source(s)
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

Distribution and population
Psittacula longicauda occurs in the Andaman and Nicobar islands, India (where it was abundant, although little recent information is available), Coco islands, Myanmar, peninsular Thailand, Sabah, Sarawak and Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Kalimantan (including the Natuna Islands), Sumatra (including the Riau Islands), Indonesia and Brunei (widespread) (BirdLife International 2001).

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is described as very common and widespread in southern Borneo, locally common in Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia and common in Brunei, the Andaman islands and the Nicobar islands (del Hoyo et al. 1997).

Trend justification
Forest destruction in the Sundaic lowlands of Indonesia, and in Thailand and Malaysia has been extensive (Kalimantan lost nearly 25% of its evergreen forest during 1985-1997, and Sumatra lost almost 30% of its 1985 cover), but the species remains numerous in a number of areas due to its capacity to forage away from forested areas and nest communally. Hence, declines are estimated to have been in the order of 20-30% in the past ten years.

Ecology
It occurs in coastal and lowland areas to at least 300 m, preferring extreme lowland swamp (including peatswamp) forest in the Thai-Malay Peninsula, although it avoids primary forest in Borneo. In addition, it has been recorded from many types of lowland evergreen forest including mangroves, oil-palm plantations and coconut groves. It prefers forest edge, including near cultivated areas and will visit parks and gardens. It is gregarious and flocks of thousands have been reported from the Nicobars and Borneo, although smaller numbers are more common. It makes poorly understood movements, being abundant in a locality for a period, then absent for years. It feeds on fruit and nests communally, using tree cavities and laying 2-3 eggs in December-February.

Threats
Rates of forest loss in the Sundaic lowlands have been extremely rapid because of a variety of factors, including the escalation of logging and land conversion, with deliberate targeting of all remaining stands of valuable timber including those inside protected areas, plus forest fires (particularly in 1997-1998).

Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. Conservation Actions Proposed
Monitor the species in trade. Monitor habitat trends and rates of deforestation in the Sundaic lowlands using satellite images and remote sensing. Research the species's ecology to improve understanding of movements it makes. Effectively protect significant areas of suitable habitat at key sites, in both strictly protected areas and multiple use areas.

References
BirdLife International. 2001. Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1997. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 4: Sandgrouse to Cuckoos. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Bird, J., Calvert, R., Taylor, J.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Psittacula longicauda. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 11/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 11/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Long-tailed parakeet (Psittacula longicauda) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Psittacidae (Parrots)
Species name author (Boddaert, 1783)
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 877,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species