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Flores Hanging-parrot Loriculus flosculus
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Justification
This parrot qualifies as Endangered because it has a very small range, in which its habitat is severely fragmented and declining in extent and quality, with rapid declines suspected in the population. Its status is likely to deteriorate further if conservation measures are not implemented in the near future.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Identification
11-12 cm. Arboreal parrot. Male predominantly green, lighter on underparts, with red bill, elongated red spot on throat, orange legs and dark red nape, bright red rump and uppertail-coverts. Female has red on throat reduced or absent. Similar spp. All other parrots on Flores are much larger. Tawny-breasted Parrot-finch Erythrura hyperythra is smaller, has underparts rich buff and behaves rather differently. Voice Sharp screeching strrt strrt in flight. Also chi-chi-chi-chi-chi when performing an apparent display flight.

Distribution and population
Loriculus flosculus is endemic to Flores and satellite islands, Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia, where it is known from eight documented localities, at some of which it is locally common in groups of up to 20 birds (BirdLife International 2001). At Tanjung Kerita Mese, population density was estimated at c.10 birds per hectare. The species is quite easily overlooked; however, its overall rarity cannot be disputed, and its apparently restricted habitat and altitudinal range suggest that it must be both numerically constrained and susceptible to further habitat loss. Recent records on Rinca Island from outside its known altitudinal range and preferred habitat (Imansyah et al. 2007) suggest that it may be more cosmopolitan in its distribution and therefore less threatened, but this requires further research.


Population justification
The population is estimated to number 2,500-9,999 mature individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 3,750-14,999 individuals, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals.

Trend justification
The species's distribution seems to correspond with the two major natural forest types on Flores: moist evergreen and semi-deciduous. These are being cleared for agriculture and the collection of firewood and construction materials. Hence, the species is suspected to be in decline, although the likely rate of decline has not been estimated.

Ecology
It was thought to occur exclusively in primary semi-evergreen forest, particularly with an abundance of fruiting figs (an important food source), but more recently it has also been recorded in moist deciduous forest on limestone and Eucalyptus forest (C. Trainor in litt. 2007). Its range apparently closely equates to that of these two forest-types on Flores, although it also visits degraded roadside habitat. It occurs chiefly in a narrow altitudinal band between 600 m and 1,200 m, but has been recorded down to sea-level in deciduous forest on Rinca Island (Imansyah et al. 2007).

Threats
Habitat destruction through the combined impacts of firewood collection, commercial logging, timber extraction for construction materials and clearance for agriculture together represent the most pertinent threat. The loss and fragmentation of forests is already extensive on Flores, where no semi-evergreen forest below 1,000 m is included within gazetted protected areas. These threats are compounded by human population expansion, with large volumes of timber required for housing construction, and the fact that there is little or no governmental enforcement of laws. Moist deciduous forest is currently being extensively cleared through land grabbing and establishment of agricultural areas, a factor that is inevitably reducing the range and population of this species. Forest clearance continues in the coastal belt to make way for crops, and illegal logging continues in protected areas.

Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. Two recent surveys have targeted endemic birds on Flores. Two sites at which this species occurs are proposed for establishment as protected areas: Tanjung Kerita Mese and Egon Iliwuli (on Gunung Egon). Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct a targeted survey for the species to identify important sites, with a view to affording them protection. Conduct research into its status and habitat use (with particular regard to feeding ecology and forest fragmentation) such that long-term management of the species is facilitated. Monitor trade across Indonesia to investigate whether this presents a significant threat. Support the rapid establishment of Tanjung Kerita Mese proposed protected area along with additional intact stretches of forest at Nggorang Bowosie (220 km2) and Gunung Egon (150 km2). Initiate awareness campaigns to elicit the support of local people in protecting forests.

Related state of the world's birds case studies

References
BirdLife International. 2001. Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Imansyah, M. J.; Purwadana, D.; Jessop, T. S. 2008. First records of Wallace's Hanging-parrot Loriculus flosculus from Rinca Island, Komodo National Park, Indonesia. Forktail: 131.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Bird, J., Davidson, P., Taylor, J., Tobias, J.

Contributors
Imansyah, J., Trainor, C.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Loriculus flosculus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/08/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/08/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Endangered
Family Psittacidae (Parrots)
Species name author Wallace, 1864
Population size 2500-9999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 1,400 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species