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Pygmy Hanging-parrot Loriculus exilis

Justification
Perhaps greatly overlooked, but almost certainly genuinely scarce, this tiny parrot is restricted to lowland forest so must undoubtedly be declining at least moderately rapidly owing to habitat loss and degradation. It is therefore classified as Near Threatened.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Distribution and population
Loriculus exilis is restricted to Sulawesi, Indonesia, where although it is clearly inconspicuous and easily overlooked, records are so few that it is characterised as generally very uncommon and local (BirdLife International 2001).

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is described as uncommon to rare (del Hoyo et al. 1997).

Trend justification
There are no data on population trends, but the species is suspected to be declining at a moderately rapid rate, owing to habitat degradation.

Ecology
It inhabits primary lowland and hill forest and mangroves up to 1,200 m.

Threats
It is apparently nomadic, so that the extensive forest destruction within its elevation range in recent decades may have caused a decline in its population. There was, at least formerly, limited trapping for the bird trade.

Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey to assess population size. Regularly monitor at certain sites throughout its range to determine population trends. Attempt to make sense of population and trend data by studying the species's movements. Protect significant areas of primary lowland forest across its range.

References
BirdLife International. 2001. Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1997. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 4: Sandgrouse to Cuckoos. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Mahood, S., Taylor, J.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Loriculus exilis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Psittacidae (Parrots)
Species name author Schlegel, 1866
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 103,000 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species