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Sangihe Hanging-parrot Loriculus catamene

Justification
This parrot is listed as Near Threatened because, although it has a very small range within which there has been extensive forest loss and fragmentation, it apparently remains common in degraded and cultivated habitats and there is no evidence of a continuing decline.

Taxonomic source(s)
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

Identification
12-13.5 cm. Largely green, arboreal parrot with red throat patch, rump, elongated uppertail-coverts and tip of tail. Orange-red undertail-coverts, tipped green. Edge of forewing yellowish-green. Similar spp. Moluccan Hanging-parrot L. amabilis and Sulawesi Hanging-parrot L. stigmatus have red on forehead and at bend of wing, shorter uppertail-coverts and green undertail-coverts. Voice Dry, moderately high-pitched, disyllabic whistle in flight: sh-ui.

Distribution and population
Loriculus catamene is endemic to the small island of Sangihe, north of Sulawesi, Indonesia (BirdLife International 2001). It was considered 'not particularly plentiful' as long ago as 1886-1887, but has more recently been found to be distributed throughout the island and locally rather common. A survey in 1998-1999 resulted in a population estimate for Sangihe Hanging-parrot of 10,700-46,200 individuals (Riley 2002) and found the species to be widespread on the island and tolerant of degraded and cultivated habitats, with a broad diet. In 2004 it was quite common and widespread in a variety of degraded habitats (forest edge, secondary forest, coconut plantations and garden areas) (R. Hutchinson in litt. 2009). Gunung Sahendaruman is the single most important site for the species.

Population justification
A survey in 1998-1999 resulted in a population estimate of 10,700-46,200 individuals, rounded to 10,000-46,000 individuals here, roughly equivalent to 6,700-31,000 mature individuals (Riley 2002).

Trend justification
There are few data on recent trends, but there is no evidence for a continuing decline and given its apparent tolerance of secondary habitats declines may have been negligible.

Ecology
In recent years it has been encountered most commonly in areas of mixed coconut groves and remnant forest, also occurring in coconut monocultures, up to c.950 m. Survey data have revealed no preference for primary forest over secondary habitats, but it is unclear whether forests may act as a source for the population while secondary habitats act as a sink. The only known nest was recorded in primary forest. Coconut nectar appears to be an important food source. In addition, at least two pairs have been observed on steep, tree-covered volcanic slopes. It is a sedentary species, generally found in small groups of one to four, but occasionally up to 27 birds (Riley 2002). Observations suggest that the species regularly flocks at roosts or favoured feeding sites.

Threats
Original forest on Sangihe has been almost completely replaced by cultivation, but the species appears to be tolerant of degraded and cultivated habitats and there is no evidence of a continuing decline. Further potential threats are the widespread clearance of large isolated trees which was linked to declines in the 1980s, disease transmitted by escaped parrots and volcanic activity in the future (Riley 2002).

Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. Since 1995, the "Action Sampiri" project has been working for biodiversity conservation in Sangihe and Talaud, conducting fieldwork, conservation awareness programmes (including village and school meetings, distribution of leaflets etc.), and developing ideas for future land-use through agreements between local people, local government, forestry officials and timber companies. Gunung Sahendaruman is the only protected forest on Sangihe and the less than 700 ha of natural forest is the last remaining on the island (A. Dian in litt. 2009). Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct research into the ecological requirements of the species and determine whether it can survive exclusively in modified habitats. Encourage forestry staff to establish a permanent presence on the island. Support proposals for the rapid gazettement of the tracts of forest known to support the species on Gunung Sahengbalira and Gunung Sahendaruman as strict nature reserves, within a more extensive proposed wildlife reserve encompassing these mountains. Continue education programmes emphasising the value of forest cover to water retention and sound farming practices on already cleared slopes. Continue sound farming practices on already cleared slopes.

References
BirdLife International. 2001. Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Riley, J. 2002. Population sizes and the status of endemic and restricted-range bird species on Sangihe Island, Indonesia. Bird Conservation International 12: 53-78.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Bird, J., Davidson, P., Symes, A., Taylor, J., Tobias, J.

Contributors
Dian, A., Hutchinson, R., Riley, J.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Loriculus catamene. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Psittacidae (Parrots)
Species name author Schlegel, 1873
Population size 6700-31000 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 560 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species