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Kakapo Strigops habroptila

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered A2be 
Endangered A2be;D1+2 
Vulnerable A2be;D 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Critically Endangered
2012 Critically Endangered
2010 Critically Endangered
2009 Critically Endangered
2008 Critically Endangered
2006 Critically Endangered
2004 Critically Endangered
2000 Critically Endangered
1996 Extinct in the Wild
1994 Extinct in the Wild
1988 Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type   Average mass -


  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 26 medium
Number of locations 2 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 78 good Observed 2012
Population trend Increasing medium -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Largest subpopulation 78 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 27 - - -
Population justification: In early 2012 there were 126 individuals, including 78 breeding adults (R. J. Moorhouse in litt. 2012).
Trend justification: The species was described as still abundant in Fiordland and some other parts of South Island in the early twentieth century. The current population comprises of at least 78 breeding adults, and 126 birds in total (R. J. Moorhouse in litt. 2012), so although the population is now starting to slowly increase, it has declined by >80% in the last 100 years (<3 generations) (P. Jansen in litt. 2004, D. Merton in litt. 2005, Merton 2009).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
New Zealand Native Extant       Yes

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland suitable resident
Forest Temperate major resident
Altitude 0 - 300 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Bacterium (Erysipelothrix rhusiopathidae) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Past Impact
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Domestic Cat (Felis catus) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Majority (50-90%) No decline Past Impact
Species mortality


Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2015) Species factsheet: Strigops habroptila. Downloaded from on 09/10/2015. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2015) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 09/10/2015.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Critically Endangered
Family Strigopidae (New Zealand Parrots)
Species name author Gray, 1845
Population size 78 mature individuals
Population trend Increasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 26 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species