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LC
Salvadori's Fig-parrot Psittaculirostris salvadorii

Justification
This species has been downlisted from Vulnerable based on new information that suggests its population size is larger than previously thought and that the level of threat it is likely to be experiencing is relatively low. It is listed as being of Least Concern on the basis that it does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under any of the Red List criteria.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Identification
19 cm. Chunky, short-tailed parrot. Largely green plumage. Male has orange breast patch and yellow cheeks, and female has pale blue breast patch and greenish-yellow cheeks. Similar spp. Edwards' Fig-parrot P. edwardsii has dark eye-stripe and collar, and red throat. Large Fig-parrot P. desmarestii has orange crown and lacks yellow cheeks. Voice Short, staccato flight calls and short, high-pitched trills when perched. Hints Common at Nimbokrang near Jayapura.

Distribution and population
Psittaculirostris salvadorii is endemic to northern Papua (formerly Irian Jaya), Indonesia, where it occurs from the eastern shore of Geelvink Bay to the Cyclops Mountains (Beehler et al. 1986), including lowland forest up the tributaries of the Mamberamo River (K. D. Bishop in litt. 2000). Records suggest that it is still locally common, including in the lowlands west of Jayapura and at Nimbokrang (Diamond 1985, Gibbs 1993, K. D. Bishop in litt. 1994, D. Gibbs in litt. 1994, Eastwood 1996b). In the Jayapura region, this species is described as fairly common in some localities (M. Halaouate in litt. 2013). Previous evidence strongly suggested a decline (K. D. Bishop in litt. 1987, 1994, R. Burrows in litt. 1994), although much of its range is remote and inaccessible (P. Gregory in litt. 1994, K. D. Bishop in litt. 2000).


Population justification
The population is placed in the band for 20,000-49,999 mature individuals, assumed to be equivalent to 30,000-75,000 individuals in total.

Trend justification
This species is suspected to be in slow to moderate decline owing to limited habitat loss and degradation and some trapping pressure.

Ecology
Small flocks inhabit the canopy of lowland forests, including forest edge and swamp-forest, from sea-level up to 400 m (Rand and Gilliard 1967, Beehler et al. 1986, K. D. Bishop in litt. 2000). It is frugivorous.

Threats
In the past, this species has been trapped in relatively large numbers for the cage-bird trade, both for domestic and overseas markets, with a total of 1,582 birds known to have been exported from Indonesia between 1985 and 1990 (Beehler 1985, Nash 1990b, K. D. Bishop in litt. 1996, Collar 1997a), and 1,791 between 1990 and 2001 when recorded trade in the species ceased (UNEP-WCMC 2007). However, the true scale of trade is unknown and it is probably overlooked by many trappers in preference of more sought-after and abundant species (B. Beehler in litt. 2012). Local human population increases, resulting from transmigration (e.g. near Nabire and Jayapura), have increased logging and land clearance for agriculture (R. Burrows in litt. 1994, Sujatnika et al. 1995), and have probably increased trade in the species. Additional threats to lowland forests within its range include many large-scale logging and agricultural schemes (Sujatnika et al. 1995, K. D. Bishop in litt. 1996). However, in Jalan Korea, where logging is intensive, there are no suggestions that this species is suffering a population decline (M. Halaouate in litt. 2013). In addition, recent information suggests that this species may be secure in the large areas of inaccessible forest within its range: it was recently found to be fairly common in the lowland forests along the Idenburg and Ruffaer rivers and it is noted that large-scale oil palm cultivation has not yet taken hold in the heart of the Mamberamo (B. Beehler in litt. 2012, D. Bishop in litt. 2012),



Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. Two huge protected areas, Foja Nature Reserve (c.10,000 km2) and Jayawija Nature Reserve (8,000 km2), are located within the species's range (Sujatnika et al. 1995). It is kept in captivity and breeds well but no coordinated breeding effort or studbook is known. Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct extensive surveys to clarify its current distribution and population status. Ascertain the scale of threats to lowland forest within its range. Investigate domestic and international trade in the species, and devise and implement appropriate combative measures. Assess the effectiveness of the current protected-areas system for conserving populations, and propose further reserves at key sites if appropriate.

References
Beehler, B. 1985. Conservation of New Guinea rainforest birds. In: Diamond, A.W.; Lovejoy, T.E. (ed.), Conservation of tropical forest birds, pp. 233-247. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Beehler, B. M.; Pratt, T. K.; Zimmerman, D. A. 1986. Birds of New Guinea. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Collar, N. J. 1997. Psittacidae (Parrots). In: del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. (ed.), Handbook of the birds of the world, pp. 280-477. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Diamond, J. M. 1985. New distributional records and taxa from the outlying mountain ranges of New Guinea. Emu 85: 65-91.

Eastwood, C. 1996. A trip to Irian Jaya. Muruk 8(1): 12-23.

Gibbs, D. 1993. Irian Jaya, Indonesia, 21 January--12 March 1991: a site guide for birdwatchers, with brief notes from 1992.

Nash, S. V. 1990. The Psittacine trade of Irian Jaya, Indonesia.

Rand, A. L.; Gilliard, E. T. 1967. Handbook of New Guinea birds. Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London.

Sujatnika; Jepson, P.; Soehartono, T. R.; Crosby, M. J.; Mardiastuti, A. 1995. Conserving Indonesian biodiversity: the Endemic Bird Area approach. BirdLife International Indonesia Programme, Bogor.

UNEP-WCMC. 2007. Psittaculirostris salvadorii Gross export trade report.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Bird, J., Dutson, G., Taylor, J. & Allinson, T

Contributors
Bishop, K., Burrows, R., Gibbs, D., Gregory, P. & Beehler, B.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Psittaculirostris salvadorii. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/08/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/08/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Salvadori’s fig-parrot (Psittaculirostris salvadorii) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Psittacidae (Parrots)
Species name author (Oustalet, 1880)
Population size 20000-49999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 50,900 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species