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White Cockatoo Cacatua alba

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Endangered A3cd 
Vulnerable A2cd+3cd+4cd 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Endangered
2012 Vulnerable
2008 Vulnerable
2007 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 20,400 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals medium Estimated 1992
Population trend Decreasing medium -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulation 1001-10000 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 13 - - -
Population justification: The global population has been estimated to number c.43,000-183,000 individuals (Lambert 1993).
Trend justification: Vetter (2009) used remote sensing techniques to track the rate and spatial pattern of forest loss in the North Maluku Endemic Bird Area between 1990 and 2003, and projected rates of deforestation over the next three generations for the region's restricted range birds. This study estimated the rate of forest loss within the geographic and elevation range of C. alba to be c.20.2% between 1990 and 2003, and projected the loss of c.65.4% of forest in its range over the next three generations. CITES data indicate that at its peak in 1991, the legal international cage-bird trade was taking c.17% of the global population annually. It is likely there is additional unrecorded and unregulated illegal and national trade in this species, so the population is inferred to be declining at a rapid rate, and is predicted to become very rapid over the next three generations (39 years).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Indonesia Native Extant      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Indonesia Aketajawe site factsheet
Indonesia Galela site factsheet
Indonesia Gunung Sibela site factsheet
Indonesia Gunung Tanah Putih site factsheet
Indonesia Labi labi site factsheet
Indonesia Lolobata site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Altitude 0 - 900 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Shifting agriculture Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact:
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting / Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact:
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Reduced reproductive success
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Cacatua alba. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 11/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 11/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Endangered
Family Psittacidae (Parrots)
Species name author (Müller, 1776)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 20,400 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species