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Yellow-crested Cockatoo Cacatua sulphurea

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered A2cd+3cd+4cd 
Endangered A2cd+3cd+4cd 
Vulnerable A2cd+3cd+4cd 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Critically Endangered
2012 Critically Endangered
2010 Critically Endangered
2009 Critically Endangered
2008 Critically Endangered
2004 Critically Endangered
2000 Critically Endangered
1996 Endangered
1994 Endangered
1988 Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 255,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1500-7000 medium Estimated 2007
Population trend Decreasing poor -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulation 1001-8800 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 13 - - -
Population justification: Based on recent surveys within various parts of the species's range, C. Trainor (in litt. 2007) has estimated the global population at fewer than 7,000 individuals: 3,200-5,000 on Sumba (although perhaps as few as 562 in 2012, Burung Indonesia in prep), 500 on Komodo, 200-300 on Timor Leste, 200-300 on Sulawesi, 20-50 on West Timor, 40-70 on Flores, 50-100 on Sumbawa, 100 on Rinca and c.700 other birds in total. It is best placed in the band 2,500-9,999 individuals, equivalent to 1,667-6,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 1,500-7,000 mature individuals.
Trend justification: This species has declined extremely rapidly owing to international trade in the species and widespread deforestation within its range. Declines have been documented in recent years, even where trade is not so obvious, such as on Komodo where an estimated decline of 60% occurred between 2000-2005.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Indonesia Native Extant Yes      
Singapore Introduced Extant       Yes
Timor-Leste Native Extant       Yes

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Indonesia Bogani Nani Wartabone site factsheet
Indonesia Buat-Soe site factsheet
Indonesia Buton Utara site factsheet
Indonesia Camplong site factsheet
Indonesia Danau Tempe site factsheet
Indonesia Gunung Lewotobi site factsheet
Indonesia Gunung Muna site factsheet
Indonesia Gunung Rinjani site factsheet
Indonesia Gunung Tambora site factsheet
Indonesia Gunung Timau site factsheet
Indonesia Kakinawe site factsheet
Indonesia Kalaotoa site factsheet
Indonesia Kepulauan Wakatobi site factsheet
Indonesia Komodo site factsheet
Indonesia Laiwanggi-Wanggameti site factsheet
Indonesia Lambu Sango site factsheet
Indonesia Lembah Palu site factsheet
Indonesia Lore Lindu site factsheet
Indonesia Luku Melolo site factsheet
Indonesia Manupeu-Tanadaru site factsheet
Indonesia Mbeliling (Tanjung Karita Mese) site factsheet
Indonesia Morowali site factsheet
Indonesia Ndeki-Komba (dan Nangarawa) site factsheet
Indonesia Nusa Penida site factsheet
Indonesia Popayato-Paguat site factsheet
Indonesia Poronumbu site factsheet
Indonesia Pulau Moyo site factsheet
Indonesia Pulau Pasoso site factsheet
Indonesia Rawa Aopa Watumohai site factsheet
Indonesia Semau site factsheet
Indonesia Tanah Jampea site factsheet
Indonesia Tanjung Ngunju (Pangaduhahar) site factsheet
Indonesia Tatar Sepang site factsheet
Indonesia Tirta Rimba-Baubau site factsheet
Indonesia Todo Repok site factsheet
Indonesia Tuti Adagae site factsheet
Indonesia Wolo Tado site factsheet
Indonesia Yawila site factsheet
Timor-Leste Fatumasin site factsheet
Timor-Leste Irebere estuary and Iliomar forest site factsheet
Timor-Leste Lore site factsheet
Timor-Leste Monte Paitchau (proposed Conis Santana National Park) site factsheet
Timor-Leste Mount Diatuto site factsheet
Timor-Leste Mount Mak Fahik and Mount Sarim site factsheet
Timor-Leste Sungai Clere site factsheet
Timor-Leste Tilomar site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Moist suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 1000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Shifting agriculture Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching / Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Very Rapid Declines High Impact: 8
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Past Impact
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting / Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Past Impact
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Climate change & severe weather Storms & flooding Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Past Impact
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases / Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Competition, Reduced reproductive success
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents / Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Cacatua sulphurea. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/10/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/10/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Critically Endangered
Family Cacatuidae (Cockatoos)
Species name author (Gmelin, 1788)
Population size 1500-7000 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 255,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species