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Red-throated Lorikeet Charmosyna amabilis
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Justification
This species qualifies as Critically Endangered because the lack of recent records, despite considerable survey effort, suggests it has a tiny population which is presumably continuing to decline as a result of predation from introduced rats and loss of habitat.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Identification
18 cm. Green lorikeet with fluttering flight. Entirely green but for red cheeks, throat and thighs. Red throat bordered with yellow. Mustard-yellow undertail and tail tips. Sexes similar, immature birds duller. Similar spp. Easily confused with Collared Lory Phigys solitarius which is considerably larger and has black cap and red on the back. Voice High-pitched squeaks uttered whilst feeding or in flight. Hints Search any flowering tree in remote forest areas, such as Mt Tomaniivi on Viti Levu.

Distribution and population
Charmosyna amabilis occurs on the islands of Viti Levu, Vanua Levu, Taveuni and Ovalau, Fiji. It has always been regarded as a rare species although 10 specimens were collected during a one-month visit in 1925 (Watling 2000). It appears to be patchily distributed, with observations becoming scarcer within recent years (J. S. Kretzschmar in litt. 2000, V. Masibalavu in litt. 2012). The last record by observers familiar with this species was in 1993, but one sighting at Mt Tomaniivi (=Mt Victoria) on Viti Levu in 2001 is supported by detailed field notes (P. Hayman in litt. 2004). Nearly all recent records on Viti Levu have been in the Mt Tomaniivi area (Watling 2000), but two birds were seen in the Nausori Highlands in 1998 (G. Allport in litt. 2000). However, a survey on Viti Levu in 2001-2002 searched for the lorikeet in the central highlands, where it has been seen most frequently since the 1970s. During 49 days in the field no birds were seen or calls heard (Swinnerton and Maljkovic 2002). The species has also not been sighted during continuing surveys in the highlands of Viti Levu (Monasavu/Nadarivatu) and Sovi Basin (V. Masibalavu in litt. 2012). There are unconfirmed records from the 1980s and 1990s from lowland areas of Ovalau, upland Taveuni and from the Natewa peninsula on Vanua Levu (Watling 2000). However, a second series of surveys in 2003 also failed to find any birds, suggesting marked declines have occurred (G. Dutson in litt. 2003). Given the failure of further surveys to detect this species, it appears to be extremely rare, and its total population may number less than 50 birds (G. Dutson in litt. 2005).

Population justification
Two detailed surveys in 2001-2002 and 2003 failed to find any birds at all, so the remaining population is likely to be very small (fewer than 50 individuals and mature individuals) indeed (G. Dutson in litt. 2005).

Trend justification
Ongoing logging and road construction causes habitat loss and is likely to increase rat populations, both of which may lead to population declines. The species is apparently harder to find now than it was formerly.

Ecology
It is found in mature forests and may be reliant on old-growth forest above 500 m (Swinnerton and Maljkovic 2002). However, its altitudinal restriction on Viti Levu and Vanua Levu is probably artificial, reflecting the absence of 'good' forest, except at higher elevations (D. Watling in litt. 2000, Swinnerton and Maljkovic 2002). On Ovalau, it has been observed in mangroves (J. S. Kretzschmar in litt. 2000). It is usually found in small flocks high in the canopy feeding on nectar and pollen from flowering trees, and probably roams seasonally in search of this food supply (Watling 1982, Clunie 1984). Its breeding ecology is unknown (Watling 1982).

Threats
Lowland and hill forest is slowly being cleared in much of Fiji. However, the rarity and assumed decline of this species is probably largely the result of predation by introduced mammals, especially black rat Rattus rattus, as is the case with the closely-related New Caledonian Lorikeet C. diadema, which could be extinct owing to predation by rats. Ongoing increases in logging and expansion of the road network, especially around the high-altitude areas of Monasavu and Serua in Viti Levu, are likely to be increasing rat density (Watling 2000, G. Dutson in litt. 2005). The introduced Indian brown mongoose Herpestes fuscus is also present in the species's range and may pose a threat (V. Masibalavu in litt. 2012). Agricultural expansion is encroaching on primary forest in Taveuni. Having a montane distribution that is close to the maximum altitude within its range, this species is also potentially susceptible to climate change (BirdLife International unpublished data).


Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. It is protected under Fijian law. On Viti Levu, it occurs within the Tomaniivi Nature Reserve, but this is not large enough to maintain a resident population and, although the establishment of the proposed Wabu extension would make a reserve of appropriate size, it would not provide any better protection against rats if the reserve remains unmanaged (D. Watling in litt. 2000). On Taveuni, the combination of the Ravilevu Nature Reserve and the Bouma National Heritage Park provides an area of adequate size for its conservation but the lorikeet remains very rare (D. Watling in litt. 2000). Two management plans have been prepared for the species and discussions on their implementation are ongoing. In 2010, there were plans to facilitate increased observer awareness in the communities local to the Tomaniivi IBA, where local people report seeing the species occasionally, with the hope that the details of any further sightings will be formally recorded (M. O'Brien in litt. 2010). Conservation Actions Proposed
On Viti Levu, repeat forest surveys around Tomaniivi and assess threats, in particular the degree to which rats have contributed to its decline and what threat they currently pose to remaining populations (SPREP 2000, G. Dutson in litt. 2005). If rats are identified as a major threat to a tiny remnant population considerations should be made for establishing a 'safe' population either in captivity or an appropriate rat-free island. Develop local expertise in survey methodology to enable monitoring (SPREP 2000). Identify further suitable areas for the conservation of this species (SPREP 2000). Survey other islands, notably montane Taveuni (G. Dutson in litt. 2005). Conduct surveys between the peak vunga and drala flowering season, between August and October (Swinnerton and Maljkovic 2002, G. Dutson in litt. 2005).

References
Clunie, F. 1984. Birds of the Fiji bush. Fiji Museum, Suva.

SPREP. 2000. Proceedings of the Melanesian Avifauna Conservation Workshop, Nadi, Fiji, 5-10 March, 2000.

Swinnerton, K.; Malijkovic, A. 2002. Red-Throated Lorikeet Charmosyna amabilis in Fiji elusive or extinct? Eclectus 12: 2-4.

Watling, D. 1982. The birds of Fiji, Tonga and Samoa. Millwood Press, Wellington, New Zealand.

Watling, D. 2000. Conservation status of Fijian birds. Technical Group 2 Report - Fiji Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Bird, J., Butchart, S., Derhé, M., O'Brien, A., Shutes, S., Stattersfield, A., Symes, A., Taylor, J., Temple, H.

Contributors
Allport, G., Dutson, G., Hayman, P., Kretzschmar, J., Masibalavu, V., O'Brien, M., Watling, D.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Charmosyna amabilis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/09/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/09/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Critically Endangered
Family Psittacidae (Parrots)
Species name author (Ramsay, 1875)
Population size 1-49 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 16,600 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species