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Black-winged Lory Eos cyanogenia

Justification
This parrot qualifies as Vulnerable because it has a small population that is undergoing a continuing decline owing to exploitation for the cagebird trade and loss of lowland forest. However there is very little recent data on this species, which may be declining more rapidly, or may be secure, on Supiori.

Taxonomic source(s)
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

Identification
10 cm. Bright red, long-tailed parrot. Violet patch on ear-coverts and black mantle and wing-coverts. Red underwing, yellowish subterminally with narrow black trailing edge. Similar spp. Black-capped Lory Lorius lory has short tail, black cap, green upperwings and purple belly. Red-fronted Lorikeet Charmosyna rubronotata and Rainbow Lorikeet Trichoglossus haematodus are largely green. Voice Stronger and shorter screech than T. haematodus. Hints Fairly common around any remnant forest, especially at flowering trees.

Distribution and population
Eos cyanogenia is endemic to the Geelvink Islands of Papua (formerly Irian Jaya), Indonesia, where it is known from the islands of Biak-Supiori, and the much smaller islands of Numfor, Manim and Mios Num (Mayr and Meyer de Schauensee 1939, Beehler et al. 1986). On Biak, it is fairly common in patchy forest, although it has sometimes been recorded in flocks of 40-60 (Gibbs 1993, Collar et al. 1994, B. Beehler and S. van Balen in litt. 2000, M. Van Beirs in litt. 2000). On Supiori, it is common, although less so at higher altitudes (Bishop 1982, Gibbs 1993). It is nomadic, making it difficult to assess its true numbers but, on Biak, it appears it declined notably between 1982 and 1995 (K. D. Bishop in litt. 2000).

Population justification
The population is estimated to number 2,500-9,999 mature individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 3,750-14,999 individuals, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals.

Trend justification
Logging and subsistence agriculture have driven forest loss within its range and hunting pressure continues to represent a threat. Consequently the species is suspected to be in decline at a moderate rate.

Ecology
It is a gregarious species which apparently feeds chiefly in inland forest, up to 460 m (although becoming less common at altitudes above 200 m on Supiori, at least), and roosts in coconut plantations and nearby coastal forest (Bishop 1982). It is common in "flat forest" on Supiori (Gibbs 1993) and still relatively common in secondary forest on Biak (N. Bostock in litt. 1993), but is absent from low scrubby regrowth (K. D. Bishop in litt. 2000).

Threats
Relatively large numbers have been trapped for the domestic and international trade (Nash 1990b, K. D. Bishop in litt. 1994), and this species is commonly observed as a pet on Biak (Bishop 1982). Large areas of forest on Biak have been destroyed or damaged by logging and subsistence farming, particularly the southern plains, and the remainder is under pressure (Bishop 1982, K. D. Bishop in litt. 1996, D. Holmes in litt. 2000). Furthermore, forest does not regenerate easily on areas of raised coralline limestone. Much of Supiori comprises virtually impenetrable, forested limestone mountains, which is likely to be safe from habitat degradation.

Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. There are two protected areas on the islands, Biak-Utara (covering 110 km2) and Pulau Supiori (covering 420 km2) Nature Reserves (Sujatnika et al. 1995). It was common in Biak-Utara Reserve in 1997 (B. Beehler and S. van Balen in litt. 2000). Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct surveys on all the Geelvink Islands to clarify its current distribution and population status. Research its ecology and movements to facilitate planning for its conservation. Investigate trade in the species and devise and implement appropriate controls. Estimate the rate of forest loss within its range. Control logging on Supiori and establish a captive breeding programme to support future reintroduction and supplementation efforts.


References
Beehler, B. M.; Pratt, T. K.; Zimmerman, D. A. 1986. Birds of New Guinea. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Bishop, K. D. 1982. Endemic birds of Biak Island.

Collar, N. J.; Butchart, S. H. M. 2013. Conservation breeding and avian diversity: chances and challenges. International Zoo Yearbook.

Collar, N. J.; Crosby, M. J.; Stattersfield, A. J. 1994. Birds to watch 2: the world list of threatened birds. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Gibbs, D. 1993. Irian Jaya, Indonesia, 21 January--12 March 1991: a site guide for birdwatchers, with brief notes from 1992.

Mayr, E.; Meyer de Schauensee, R. 1939. Zoological results of the Denison-Crockett Expedition to the south Pacific for the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 1937-1938. Part 1: the birds of the Island of Biak. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 91: 1-37.

Nash, S. V. 1990. The Psittacine trade of Irian Jaya, Indonesia.

Sujatnika; Jepson, P.; Soehartono, T. R.; Crosby, M. J.; Mardiastuti, A. 1995. Conserving Indonesian biodiversity: the Endemic Bird Area approach. BirdLife International Indonesia Programme, Bogor.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Bird, J., Crosby, M., Derhé, M., Dutson, G.

Contributors
Beehler, B., Bishop, K., Bostock, N., Holmes, D., van Balen, B., van Beirs, M.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Eos cyanogenia. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/04/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Black-winged lory (Eos cyanogenia) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Psittacidae (Parrots)
Species name author Bonaparte, 1850
Population size 2500-9999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 2,900 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species