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Caspian Snowcock Tetraogallus caspius
BirdLife is updating this factsheet for the 2016 Red List
Please email us with any relevant information

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass -


  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 314,000
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 6700-33000 poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5 - - -
Population justification: del Hoyo et al. (1994) estimated the global population to number 8,400-11,200 individuals. In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 2,500-9,000 breeding pairs, equating to 7,500-27,000 individuals (BirdLife International 2004). Europe forms 5-24% of the global range, so a revised estimate of the global population size is 10,000-50,000 individuals (roughly equating to 6,700-33,000 mature individuals), although further validation of this estimate is needed.
Trend justification: The population is declining owing to habitat degradation caused by over-grazing and, in Azerbaijan, conflict and also over-hunting throughout much of its range (del Hoyo et al. 1994).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Armenia Native Extant Yes      
Azerbaijan Native Extant       Yes
Georgia Native Extant Yes      
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant       Yes
Iraq Native Extant       Yes
Turkey Native Extant       Yes
Turkmenistan Native Extant Yes      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Armenia Gndasar site factsheet
Armenia Haghartsin site factsheet
Armenia Khosrov Reserve site factsheet
Armenia Meghri site factsheet
Armenia Zangezoor site factsheet
Azerbaijan Lake Gey Gel site factsheet
Azerbaijan Mount Dalidag site factsheet
Azerbaijan Mount Giamysh site factsheet
Azerbaijan Ordubad area site factsheet
Azerbaijan Shahbuz area site factsheet
Georgia Adjara-Imereti Ridge site factsheet
Georgia Kintrishi site factsheet
Georgia Meskheti site factsheet
Georgia Shavsheti Ridge site factsheet
Georgia Trialeti Ridge site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Alborz-e Markazi Protected Area site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arasbaran Protected Area site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Kiamaki Wildlife Refuge site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lar River Protected Area site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Oshtrankuh Protected Area site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Parvar Protected Area site factsheet
Turkey Ağrı Mount site factsheet
Turkey Aladağlar site factsheet
Turkey Bolkar Mountains site factsheet
Turkey Buzul and İkiyaka Mountains site factsheet
Turkey Eastern Black Sea Mountains site factsheet
Turkey Munzur Mountains site factsheet
Turkmenistan Kurtusuv - Khovudan site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Temperate suitable resident
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) major resident
Altitude 1800 - 4000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  


Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Tetraogallus caspius. Downloaded from on 26/10/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 26/10/2016.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Phasianidae (Pheasants, Partridges, Turkeys, Grouse)
Species name author (Gmelin, 1784)
Population size 6700-33000 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 314,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species
- 2015 European Red List assessment