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VU
Black Tinamou Tinamus osgoodi

Justification
Although recent records indicate that this species's range is larger than previously thought, it has been retained as Vulnerable because new observations regarding the level of hunting pressure experienced by the species, in addition to ongoing habitat loss and degradation, suggest that its population is undergoing a rapid decline.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Identification
40-46 cm. Large, blackish tinamou. All blackish except sooty belly and rufescent, barred black undertail. Voice Mournful, tremulous, descending whistle lasting about one second.

Distribution and population
Tinamus osgoodi has an apparently highly disjunct range in the Andes of northern and central South America. Subspecies hershkovitzi occurs on the western slope of the East Andes, in Huila, Colombia, where its current status is unknown (last seen in 1976, according to Hilty and Brown 1986). Records from the northern Central Andes of Antioquia, Colombia, in 1999-2000 (A. Cuervo in litt. 1999, Cuervo et al. 2008) are considered hypothetical (Fundación ProAves de Colombia 2011). In August 2001, a bird was reported from Shishicho, just north of Puerto Libre, Ecuador, near the border with Colombia (T. S. Schulenberg in litt. 2001, Pitman et al. 2002), representing the first sight record for the country, following a recording of a bird at the Loreto Road, Napo, in June 1998 (Brinkhuizen and Córdova Saeteros 2011, D. M. Brinkhuizen in litt. 2011). In December 2008, an individual of this species was photographed in the Cordillera de Huacamayos, Napo, providing evidence that the birds found in Ecuador belong to subspecies hershkovitzi (Brinkhuizen and Córdova Saeteros 2011). There are reports that the species was photographed by camera traps near the Loreto Road in the relatively new Narupa Reserve during 2009, and there are undocumented reports that this species has been heard and photographed using camera traps at the base of Sumaco Volcano (Brinkhuizen and Córdova Saeteros 2011, D. M. Brinkhuizen in litt. 2011). The increasing number of records from Ecuador suggest that the species's range is more extensive and less disjunct than previously thought (Brinkhuizen and Córdova Saeteros 2011). The nominate form occurs on the eastern slope of the Andes in Cuzco, Puno and Madre de Dios, south-eastern Peru, where it has been described as common (at least until 1958), fairly common and uncommon at three known locations (Clements and Shany 2001). A sizeable population may exist in Manu National Park, Madre de Dios and Cuzco. It was found to be "remarkably abundant" in the Megantoni Reserved Zone (Vriesendorp et al. 2004). It was more recently found in a fourth area, the isolated Cerros del Sira in Huanaco, central Peru, where at least five birds were seen and further individuals were heard during biological inventories in 2005-2006 (Gastañaga et al. 2007). A report from 2007 concerns a single bird at 419 m in Yanachaga-Chemillén National Park (O. Gonzalez in litt. 2011). In addition, unpublished records exist from Parque Nacional Madidi in La Paz Department, Bolivia (T. Valqui, pers. comm. per Vriesendorp et al. 2004).

Population justification
This species's population size has not been formally estimated and, in the absence of sufficient data, it is preliminary estimated to number fewer than 10,000 individuals; however, detailed research is required. It is placed in the band 2,500-9,999 individuals, equating to 1,667-6,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 1,500-7,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification
The species's population is suspected to be undergoing a rapid decline, based in part on recent observations regarding the level of hunting pressure in some areas (Gastañaga et al. 2007, R. MacLeod and M. Gastañaga in litt. 2011), in addition to ongoing habitat loss and degradation.

Ecology
This is a poorly known species of premontane and montane humid forest, including "valley cloud-forest" (stunted, moss-enshrouded trees) in Madre de Dios (P. Champlin in litt 1998), and may require primary forest (A. Cuervo in litt. 1999, P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999). The northern subspecies is known from 1,400-2,100 m, whereas the nominate subspecies is generally found at 600-1,650 m. In Peru, breeding-condition specimens have been taken in March-November and a quarter-grown chick was collected in February. One specimen had its stomach and crop full of nuts


Threats
Most intermontane foothill forest in Colombia has been cleared for agriculture and human settlement, and the rate of habitat loss has increased recently with improvements to the road network in Huila (P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999). Opium plantations are spreading, even within Cueva de los Guácharos National Park, Huila (Wege and Long 1995, P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999). In its Peruvian range, human settlement and agricultural development of forests occurs largely below c.900 m. However, oil exploration is taking place in the foothills of south-east Peru, and roads built to facilitate this are being settled (H. Lloyd in litt. 1999). It is hunted for food (P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999) and is a favourite target for hunters in the Sira Mountains, some of whom enter the area exclusively to hunt the species (Gastañaga et al. 2007). Observations suggest that the species is uncommon or absent in areas frequented by hunters, and hunters themselves report having to go ever higher into the mountains to find the species (R. MacLeod and M. Gastañaga in litt. 2011). The rate of habitat loss in north-eastern Ecuador is increasing rapidly, driven by logging and conversion to cattle pastures and cultivation (D. M. Brinkhuizen in litt. 2011).

Conservation Actions Underway
The species has been recorded in several protected areas, across all three range states. There are several records from in and around Manu National Park (P. Champlin in litt 1998). Subspecies hershkovitzi has been recorded in Cueva de los Guácharos National Park, Huila (Hilty and Brown 1986). Sira Mountains are included in Sira Communal Reserve but this does not provide effective protection against hunting (Gastañaga et al. 2007).The recently created Megantoni Reserved Zone may be a "main population centre" for this species, since it is "remarkably abundant" here (Vriesendorp et al. 2004).Conservation Actions Proposed
Search for additional populations, especially in areas unknown to science (H. Lloyd in litt. 1999, P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999). Investigate the taxonomy of the disjunct populations (A. Cuervo in litt. 1999, P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999). Incorporate the Tavara-Candamo area into Bahuaja-Sonene National Park (H. Lloyd in litt. 1999). Control tourism in the foothills of south-east Peru (H. Lloyd in litt. 1999). Support conservation education programmes (H. Lloyd in litt. 1999), particularly to prevent hunting in the Cerro del Sira.

References
Clements, J. F.; Shany, N. 2001. A field guide to the birds of Peru. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Fundación ProAves de Colombia. 2011. Notes on the status of various threatened birds species occurring in Colombia. Conservacion Colombiana 15: 22-28.

Gastañaga, M.; Hennessey, A. B.; MacLeod, R. 2007. Rediscovery of Southern Horned Curassow Pauxi unicornis koepckeae in Cerros del Sira, Peru. Cotinga 28: 63-66.

Hilty, S. L.; Brown, W. L. 1986. A guide to the birds of Colombia. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Pitman, N.; Moskovits, D. K.; Alverson, W. S.; Borman, R. A. 2002. Ecuador: Serranías Cofán-Bermejo, Sinangoe. The Field Museum, Chicago, USA.

Renjifo, L. M.; Franco-Maya, A. M.; Amaya-Espinel, J. D.; Kattan, G. H.; López-Lanús, B. 2002. Libro rojo de aves de Colombia. Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt y Ministerio del Medio Ambiente, Bogot, Colombia.

Vriesendorp, C.; Chávez, L. R.; Moskovits, D.; Shopland, J. 2004. Peru: Megantoni. The Field Museum, Chicago.

Wege, D. C.; Long, A. J. 1995. Key Areas for threatened birds in the Neotropics. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomoía y la categoría de la Lista Roja de la UICN pudo haber cambiado desde esta publicación.

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Clay, R., Harding, M., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A., Taylor, J., Symes, A., Taylor, J.

Contributors
Champlin, P., Cuervo, A., Salaman, P., Schulenberg, T., MacLeod, R., Lloyd, J., Brinkhuizen, D., Gastañaga, M., Lloyd, H.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Tinamus osgoodi. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/08/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/08/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Black tinamou (Tinamus osgoodi) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Tinamidae (Tinamous)
Species name author Conover, 1949
Population size 1500-7000 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 29,400 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species