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Black-hooded Coucal Centropus steerii
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Justification
This coucal qualifies as Critically Endangered because it is believed to have an extremely small, severely fragmented population, which is continuing to decline owing to the loss and degradation of remaining forest fragments.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Identification
46 cm. Unobtrusive forest-dwelling coucal. Glossy black head forming dark hood. Rest of plumage brownish, tail glossed greenish-black. Dark bill. Similar spp. Philippine Coucal C. viridis mindorensis is entirely blackish, lacking the contrasting dark hood. Voice Typically five to eight deep woop notes given in a descending series. Hints Restricted to the forest interior where it favours dense vine-tangles and thick canopy.

Distribution and population
Centropus steerii is endemic to the island of Mindoro in the Philippines, where it was formerly widespread and fairly common (Collar et al. 1999). However, only a tiny amount of lowland forest remains on Mindoro and its population is now believed to be extremely small, with records since 1980 from just three localities (Siburan, Puerto Galera, Malpalon), two of which are adjacent to each other. Siburan is regarded as probably the key site for the species, where at least five calling birds were recorded during one day in 2011 (R. Hutchinson in litt. 2012).

Population justification
The population is estimated to number 50-249 mature individuals based on a detailed analysis of recent records by BirdLife International (2001). This equates to 75-374 individuals in total, rounded here to 70-400 individuals.

Trend justification
This species's population is suspected to be declining rapidly, in line with habitat loss and degradation within its range.

Ecology
It is restricted to primary lowland and transitional (to mid-mountain) dipterocarp forest, up to 760 m, where it frequents dense vegetation, tangled thickets, vine-covered shrubs and bamboo. It appears to be displaced in forest edge and second growth by C. viridis.

Threats
By 1988, extensive deforestation on Mindoro had reduced forest cover to a mere 120 km2, of which only a small proportion is below this species's upper altitudinal limit. The lowland forest that does remain is highly fragmented and it is believed that at the current rate of deforestation all forest may disappear by 2020-2030. Slash-and-burn cultivation, occasional selective logging and rattan collection threaten the forest fragments that still support the species. Dynamite blasting for marble is an additional threat to forest at Puerto Galera. The species's genetic viability may be at risk given the small size and fragmented nature of remaining populations.

Conservation Actions Underway
An education programme has also been started at Malpalon. Funding has been provided for faunal inventories and environmental education initiatives at Puerto Galera, where hunting has been locally prohibited. The Sablayan Penal Colony recently adopted the Mindoro Bleeding-heart Gallicolumba platenae as their flagship species for conservation and established a forest protection and restoration unit within the boundaries of the penal colony inside the Mt. Siburan IBA, which may also benefit the coucal (B. Tabaranza in litt. 2008). As part of the BirdLife Preventing Extinctions programme, Species Guardians Haribon Foundation are implementing the following actions for Mindoro Bleeding-heart and Black-hooded Coucal (BirdLife International 2008): an IBA monitoring team for Mount Siburan has been set up, training and utilising local participants; actions are underway to strengthen the Sablayan Forest Management Board (SFMB), the main function of which is to oversee the implementation of the Sablayan Forest Management Plan; an IEC (Information-Education-Communication) Plan is being developed for use in environmental education, awareness raising and local advocacy; a Sablayan Ecotourism Plan is being developed, including training local bird tour guides; and efforts have been made to strengthen and consolidate the Site Support Group's actions aimed at eliminating logging activities and the accidental snaring of Mindoro Bleeding-heart. Conservation Actions Proposed
Identify and conduct further surveys in remaining suitable habitat, e.g. at Mt Halcon, to clarify its current status. Establish formal, managed protected areas to conserve remnant forest at Malpalon and Puerto Galera. Extend Mt Iglit-Baco National Park to encompass remaining lowland forest tracts. Devise and implement a management plan for the forest at Siburan that reconciles biodiversity with its role as a prison. Raise public awareness about the status and importance of this species.

Related state of the world's birds case studies

References
BirdLife International. 2001. Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

BirdLife International. 2008. Species Guardian Action Update: November 2008: Mindoro Bleeding-heart Gallicolumba platenae, Black-hooded Coucal Centropus steerii. Available at: #http://www.birdlife.org/extinction/pdfs/Mindoro_Bleeding-Heart_and_Black-hooded_Coucal.pdf#.

Collar, N. J.; Mallari, N. A. D.; Tabaranza, B. R. J. 1999. Threatened birds of the Philippines: the Haribon Foundation/BirdLife International Red Data Book. Bookmark, Makati City.

Further web sources of information
Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) species/site profile. This species has been identified as an AZE trigger due to its IUCN Red List status and limited range.

Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Species Guardian Action Update

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Bird, J., Butchart, S., Davidson, P., Lowen, J., Peet, N., Pilgrim, J., Symes, A., Taylor, J.

Contributors
Hutchinson, R., Tabaranza, B.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Centropus steerii. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/08/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/08/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Critically Endangered
Family Cuculidae (Cuckoos)
Species name author Bourns & Worcester, 1894
Population size 50-249 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 700 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species