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Black-bellied Malkoha Phaenicophaeus diardi

Justification
This forest-associated species is listed as Near Threatened because it is suspected to be undergoing a moderately rapid decline owing to the extensive loss of lowland forests from large areas of the Sundaic lowlands. It is not considered more threatened because it can use secondary habitats and occurs at higher elevations.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Distribution and population
Phaenicophaeus diardi occurs from south Tenasserim, Myanmar, peninsular Thailand, Sabah, Sarawak and Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, and Kalimantan and Sumatra, Indonesia (BirdLife International 2001). Although widespread and common in many parts of its range, it is presumably declining owing to deforestation.

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is described as common in Thailand and Borneo and uncommon in Malaysia (del Hoyo et al. 1997).

Trend justification
Forest destruction in the Sundaic lowlands of Indonesia has been extensive, and the situation is little different in Thailand and Malaysia. However, the species's ability to persist in second growth and at higher elevations, where forest destruction has been less severe, means that its decline has probably been moderately rapid; less rapid than for many lowland primary forest specialists.

Ecology
It occurs in primary or secondary evergreen forest, swamp forest, bamboo or mangroves to 1,220 m. It is typically found in dense undergrowth and creepers. It forages for insects and breeds in January-April.

Threats
Rates of forest loss in the Sundaic lowlands have been extremely rapid (Kalimantan lost nearly 25% of its evergreen forest during 1985-1997, and Sumatra lost almost 30% of its 1985 cover), because of a variety of factors, including the escalation of logging and land conversion, with deliberate targeting of all remaining stands of valuable timber including those inside protected areas, plus forest fires (particularly in 1997-1998).

Conservation Actions Underway
None are known. Conservation Actions Proposed
Assess the species's dependence on forest habitats. If appropriate calculate rates of decline inferred from rates of forest loss. Effectively protect significant areas of suitable habitat at key sites, in both strictly protected areas and community led multiple use areas.

References
BirdLife International. 2001. Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1997. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 4: Sandgrouse to Cuckoos. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Bird, J., Taylor, J.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Phaenicophaeus diardi. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/09/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/09/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Cuculidae (Cuckoos)
Species name author (Lesson, 1830)
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 1,260,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species