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Solitary Tinamou Tinamus solitarius

Justification
This species qualifies as Near Threatened as declines in its population are suspected to approach the threshold for classification as Vulnerable.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Distribution and population
Tinamus solitarius occurs in the Atlantic forest of east Brazil (Pernambuco to Rio Grande do Sul and inland to south Mato Grosso), south-east Paraguay and extreme north-east Argentina (Misiones) (Cabot et al. 1992, Sick 1993). There are two subspecies, with the north-east Brazil race pernambucensis having suffered a marked range contraction: not more than 100 individuals were estimated in 1971 (Cabot et al. 1992); however a recent study suggests this may not be a valid taxon (Amaral and Silveira 2004). The nominate race is rare throughout its range owing to hunting pressure and habitat loss, although it is still relatively common in several protected areas (Cabot et al. 1992, Parker et al. 1996).


Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as 'uncommon' (Stotz et al. 1996).

Trend justification
A moderately rapid and on-going population decline is suspected, owing to rates of habitat loss and hunting pressure.

Ecology
It is mostly found in lowland humid forest up to 1,200 m, preferring intact closed-canopy forest with little undergrowth (Cabot et al. 1992, Parker et al. 1996). It is supposedly susceptible to forest fragmentation (each bird apparently requiring c.30 ha of primary forest), but there is a notable Paraguayan population in a small area of degraded forest, and it is seen regularly in secondary forest at one site in Argentina (Chebez 1990, Cabot et al. 1992, Lowen et al. 1996).


Threats
Current key threats are illegal hunting, urbanisation, industrialisation, agricultural expansion, colonisation and associated road-building (Dinerstein et al. 1995).

Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix I. Conservation Actions Proposed
Clarify taxonomic validity of race pernambucensis. Survey known sites. Effectively protect remaining Atlantic forest sites.

References
Amaral, F.S. R.D.; Silveira, L. F. 2004. Tinamus solitarius pernambucensis Berla, 1946 é sinônimo de Tinamus solitarius (Vieillot, 1819). Ararajuba 12: 33-41.

Cabot, J. 1992. Tinamidae (Tinamous). In: Del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. (ed.), Handbook of the birds of the world, pp. 112-138. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Chebez, J. C. 1990. Nuestras aves amenazadas, 22. El Macuco Tinamus solitarius. Nuestras Aves 21: 5-8.

Dinerstein, E.; Olson, D. M.; Graham, D. J.; Webster, A. L.; Primm, S. A.; Bookbinder, M. P.; Ledec, G. 1995. A conservation assesssment of the terrestrial ecoregions of Latin America and the Caribbean. World Bank, Washington, D.C.

Lowen, J. C.; Bartrina, L.; Clay, R. P.; Tobias, J. A. 1996. Biological surveys and conservation priorities in eastern Paraguay (the final reports of Projects Canopy '92 and Yacutinga '95). CSB Conservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Parker, T. A.; Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W. 1996. Ecological and distributional databases. In: Stotz, D.F.; Fitzpatrick, J.W.; Parker, T.A.; Moskovits, D.K. (ed.), Neotropical bird ecology and conservation, pp. 113-436. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Sick, H. 1993. Birds in Brazil: a natural history. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Symes, A., Benstead, P., Symes, A., Mansur, E., Capper, D., Sharpe, C J

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Tinamus solitarius. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Tinamidae (Tinamous)
Species name author (Vieillot, 1819)
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 990,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species