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Numfor Paradise-kingfisher Tanysiptera carolinae
BirdLife is updating this factsheet for the 2016 Red List
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Although this species appears to persist in highly degraded habitats, its ecological requirements are poorly known, and habitat loss and degradation on Numfor are on-going. Given that it occurs within a very small range, and is likely to have a small to moderately small, but not severely fragmented population, it is considered to be Near Threatened.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Distribution and population
Tanysiptera carolinae is endemic to the island of Numfor (330 km2) in Geelvink Bay, Papua (formerly Irian Jaya), Indonesia, where it is common and widespread.

Population justification
There is a single subpopulation, restricted to the island of Numfor. The population size has apparently not been quantified.

Trend justification
Data are lacking on population trends, and although this species may be able to persist in degraded habitats, on-going deforestation on Numfor suggests that a slow decline may still be occurring.

This species occurs in all lowland habitats on Numfor, including beach vegetation and highly degraded forest (Beehler et al. 1986, D. Gibbs verbally 2000).

Much of the forest on Numfor has already been destroyed or degraded by logging and subsistence farming (Bishop 1982, K. D. Bishop in litt. 1996).

Conservation Actions Underway
No protected area currently exists on Numfor, although a reserve has been proposed (Diamond 1986).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct ecological studies to determine the habitat requirements of this species, and whether it can persist in areas where natural forest habitats are completely removed. Support plans to establish a nature reserve on Numfor.

Beehler, B. M.; Pratt, T. K.; Zimmerman, D. A. 1986. Birds of New Guinea. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Bishop, K. D. 1982. Endemic birds of Biak Island.

Diamond, J. 1986. The design of a nature reserve system for Indonesian New Guinea. In: Soulé, M.E. (ed.), Conservation biology: the science of scarcity and diversity, pp. 485-503. Sinaeur, Sunderland, Mass.

Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Gilroy, J., Taylor, J.

Bishop, K., Gibbs, D.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Tanysiptera carolinae. Downloaded from on 22/10/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 22/10/2016.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Alcedinidae (Kingfishers)
Species name author Schlegel, 1871
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 340 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species