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Green-backed Kingfisher Actenoides monachus

This species is considered Near Threatened, as it is likely to be undergoing a moderately rapid population decline as a result of on-going habitat destruction within its range.

Taxonomic source(s)
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

Taxonomic note

Actenoides monachus and A. capucinus (del Hoyo et al. 2013) were previously lumped as A. monachus following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).

Distribution and population
Actenoides monachus is restricted to Sulawesi (race monachus in north and central, race capucinus in east, south-east and south Sulawesi), Indonesia (BirdLife International 2001). It is generally considered to be uncommon, although it is highly inconspicuous. It is reported to be locally common in parts of Lore Lindu National Park, Dumgoa-Bone National Park and Tangkoko DuaSudara Nature Reserve.

Population justification
The population size of this species has not been quantified, but it has been described as generally uncommon.

Trend justification
A moderately rapid and on-going population decline is suspected to be occurring, owing to the rapid destruction and degradation of lowland forests throughout this species's range.

This species occurs in dense primary and tall secondary lowland forest up to 900 m.

Forest destruction within its elevation range has been extensive in recent decades, and its populations must have suffered a commensurate decline.

Conservation Actions Underway
It occurs in several protected areas, including Lore Lindu National Park, Dumgoa-Bone National Park and Tangkoko DuaSudara Nature Reserve. Conservation Actions Proposed
Clarify the taxonomic status of the two subspecies. Conduct repeated surveys of known and potential sites across Sulawesi in order to determine abundance and population trends. Conduct ecological studies to determine levels of tolerance of secondary habitats, particularly in areas where primary forests have been extirpated. Ensure the protection of existing forest reserves.

BirdLife International. 2001. Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 2001. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 6: Mousebirds to Hornbills. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Gilroy, J., Taylor, J.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Actenoides monachus. Downloaded from on 13/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 13/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Green-backed kingfisher (Actenoides monachus) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Alcedinidae (Kingfishers)
Species name author (Bonaparte, 1850)
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 132,000 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species