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Talaud Kingfisher Todiramphus enigma
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Although this species apparently remains common within its tiny range, it is dependent on forest, and could decline rapidly if rates of habitat loss increase. Given that it has an intrinsically small population size, and hence is susceptible to stochastic events and human activities, it is considered Near Threatened.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Halcyon enigma Collar and Andrew (1988), Todirhamphus enigma Collar et al. (1994), Todirhamphus enigma Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993)

Distribution and population
Todiramphus enigma is restricted to the Talaud islands (Karakelang and Salibabu, with no contemporary records from Kabaruan [Riley 2003]), Indonesia, where it is apparently common and little affected by habitat loss (BirdLife International 2001).

Population justification
The population size of this species has not been quantified, but it has been described as common.

Trend justification
Population trend data are lacking, but this species apparently remains common, and has not been greatly affected by habitat loss, so it is suspected to be stable.

This species occupies the mid-canopy of primary and secondary forest, often along streams (being replaced in cultivated and coastal areas by Collared Kingfisher T. chloris).

Some areas within the species's range are subject to logging pressure, including the Karakelang Hunting Reserve. However, this species is apparently able to persist in logged forest.

Conservation Actions Underway
A population of this species occurs in the Karakelang Hunting Reserve. Conservation Actions Proposed
Monitor population trends across the range to determine whether declines are occurring. Conduct ecological studies to determine habitat requirements and tolerance of secondary habitats. Campaign for the protection of remaining primary forests in the Talaud Islands.

BirdLife International. 2001. Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 2001. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 6: Mousebirds to Hornbills. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Riley, J. 2003. Population sizes and the conservation status of endemic and restricted-range bird species on Karakelang, Talaud Islands, Indonesia. Bird Conservation International 13: 59-74.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Gilroy, J., Taylor, J.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Todiramphus enigma. Downloaded from on 21/10/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 21/10/2016.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Alcedinidae (Kingfishers)
Species name author (Hartert, 1904)
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Stable
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 1,000 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species