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European Roller Coracias garrulus

IUCN Red List Criteria

Near Threatened (criteria nearly met) A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Near Threatened
2008 Near Threatened
2005 Near Threatened
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type   Average mass 146 g


  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 11,400,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 11,400,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2004
Population trend Decreasing poor -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.6 - - -
Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 53000-110000 breeding pairs, equating to 159000-330000 individuals (BirdLife International 2004). Europe forms 50-74% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population si
Trend justification: Northern European populations of the species have shown the most dramatic declines in recent years, and in Russia it has now disappeared from the northern part of its range. Some southern European populations have also declined: in the past century, the species has gone extinct in Germany, Denmark, Sweden (Snow & Perrins, 1998) and Finland (Avilés et al. 1999), possibly due to habitat loss as a result of agricultural intensification (Snow & Perrins 1998). Populations in the Middle East and Central Asia have not apparently exhibited declines, and hence global declines are suspected to fall within the band 20-30% over the past ten years.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan Native Extant Yes    
Albania Native Extant Yes    
Algeria Native Extant      
Angola Native Extant      
Armenia Native Extant Yes    
Austria Native Extant Yes    
Azerbaijan Native Extant Yes    
Bahrain Native Extant     Yes
Belarus Native Extant Yes    
Belgium Vagrant Extant      
Benin Native Extant      
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant Yes    
Botswana Native Extant      
Bulgaria Native Extant Yes   Yes
Burkina Faso Native Extant      
Burundi Native Extant      
Cameroon Native Extant      
Cape Verde Vagrant Extant      
Central African Republic Native Extant      
Chad Native Extant      
China (mainland) Native Extant Yes    
Comoros Vagrant Extant      
Congo Native Extant      
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Native Extant      
Côte d'Ivoire Native Extant      
Croatia Native Extant Yes    
Cyprus Native Extant Yes   Yes
Czech Republic Native Extant Yes    
Denmark Vagrant Extant     Yes
Djibouti Native Extant      
Egypt Native Extant      
Eritrea Native Extant      
Estonia Native Extant Yes    
Ethiopia Native Extant      
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Vagrant Extant      
Finland Vagrant Extant Yes    
France Native Extant Yes   Yes
Gabon Native Extant      
Gambia Native Extant      
Georgia Native Extant Yes    
Germany Native Extant   Yes  
Ghana Native Extant   Yes  
Gibraltar (to UK) Native Extant      
Greece Native Extant Yes   Yes
Guinea-Bissau Native Extant      
Hungary Native Extant Yes    
Iceland Vagrant Extant      
India Native Extant Yes    
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant Yes   Yes
Iraq Native Extant     Yes
Ireland Vagrant Extant      
Israel Native Extant Yes    
Italy Native Extant Yes    
Jordan Native Extant     Yes
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes    
Kenya Native Extant      
Kuwait Native Extant     Yes
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant Yes    
Latvia Native Extant Yes    
Lebanon Native Extant     Yes
Lesotho Native Extant      
Libya Native Extant      
Liechtenstein Vagrant Extant      
Lithuania Native Extant Yes    
Luxembourg Vagrant Extant      
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant Yes    
Malawi Native Extant      
Mali Native Extant      
Malta Native Extant      
Mauritania Native Extant      
Moldova Native Extant Yes   Yes
Montenegro Native Extant Yes    
Morocco Native Extant      
Mozambique Native Extant      
Namibia Native Extant      
Netherlands Vagrant Extant      
Niger Native Extant   Yes  
Nigeria Native Extant      
Norway Vagrant Extant Yes   Yes
Oman Native Extant     Yes
Pakistan Native Extant Yes    
Palestinian Authority Territories Native Extant Yes   Yes
Poland Native Extant Yes    
Portugal Native Extant Yes    
Qatar Native Extant     Yes
Romania Native Extant Yes    
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes    
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes    
Rwanda Native Extant      
San Marino Unknown Extant Yes   Yes
São Tomé e Príncipe Vagrant Extant      
Saudi Arabia Native Extant     Yes
Senegal Native Extant      
Serbia Native Extant Yes    
Seychelles Vagrant Extant   Yes Yes
Slovakia Native Extant Yes    
Slovenia Native Extant Yes    
Somalia Native Extant      
South Africa Native Extant      
South Sudan Native Extant     Yes
Spain Native Extant Yes   Yes
Sudan Native Extant      
Swaziland Native Extant      
Sweden Native Extinct Yes    
Switzerland Vagrant Extant Yes    
Syria Native Extant Yes   Yes
Tajikistan Native Extant Yes    
Tanzania Native Extant      
Tunisia Native Extant      
Turkey Native Extant Yes    
Turkmenistan Native Extant Yes    
Uganda Native Extant      
Ukraine Native Extant Yes   Yes
United Arab Emirates Native Extant Yes   Yes
United Kingdom Vagrant Extant      
Uzbekistan Native Extant Yes    
Western Sahara Native Extant      
Yemen Native Extant     Yes
Zambia Native Extant      
Zimbabwe Native Extant      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Austria South-east Styrian hill country site factsheet
Belarus Biarezinski zapaviednik site factsheet
Belarus Mid Prypiac' site factsheet
Bulgaria Emine site factsheet
Bulgaria Ludogorie site factsheet
Bulgaria Nikopolsko Plateau site factsheet
Bulgaria Obnova Fish-ponds site factsheet
Bulgaria Provadiysko-Royaksko plateau site factsheet
Bulgaria Sredna Gora site factsheet
Bulgaria Zlatiata site factsheet
Cyprus Akamas and Agia Aikaterini – Agia Paraskevi Gorges site factsheet
Cyprus Akrotiri Peninsula - Episkopi Cliffs site factsheet
Cyprus Diarizos Valley site factsheet
Cyprus Ezousa Valley and Cliffs site factsheet
Cyprus Ha Potami River site factsheet
Cyprus Karpasia Peninsula - Kleides Islands site factsheet
Cyprus Koshi-Pallourokampos and Troulloi Plain site factsheet
Cyprus Panagia Stazousa River site factsheet
Cyprus Paramali River and Plateau site factsheet
Cyprus Pentadaktylos Mountains site factsheet
Cyprus Pentashoinos River site factsheet
Cyprus Saramas Valley site factsheet
Cyprus Xeros Valley and Hannoutaris Cliffs site factsheet
France Camargue site factsheet
France Crau site factsheet
France Etangs de Vendres, Pissevache et Lespignan site factsheet
France Gorges du Gardon site factsheet
France Hautes garrigues du Montpellierais site factsheet
France Marais entre Crau et Grand Rhône: Meyranne, Chanoine, Plan de Bourg et Salins du Caban site factsheet
France Petite Camargue fluvio-lacustre site factsheet
France Plaine des Maures site factsheet
France Plateau de l'Arbois, garrigues de Lancon et chaîne des Côtes site factsheet
Hungary Alkaline pusztas of Upper Kiskunság site factsheet
Hungary Borsodi-Mezőség site factsheet
Hungary Gerje-sik site factsheet
Hungary Heves Plain site factsheet
Hungary Lower Tisza Valley site factsheet
Italy Litorale Romano site factsheet
Kyrgyzstan Tulek Valley site factsheet
Latvia Garkalne forest site factsheet
Lithuania Dzukija National Park site factsheet
Lithuania Initial area of Aukstaitija NP site factsheet
Lithuania Labanoras Regional Park site factsheet
Lithuania Sartai Regional Park and Rokiskis Fishponds site factsheet
Lithuania Simonys & Ramuldava forest complex site factsheet
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Gradsko-Rosoman-Negotino site factsheet
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Lake Mantovo and river Lakavica site factsheet
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Ovche Pole site factsheet
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Pelagonia site factsheet
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of River Pchinja-river Petroshnica-river Kriva Reka site factsheet
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of River Topolka-river Babuna-river Bregalnica site factsheet
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Tikvesh Region site factsheet
Poland Kurpie Site site factsheet
Poland Omulew and Plodownica Rivers Valleys site factsheet
Poland Sandomierz Forest site factsheet
Portugal Castro Verde plains site factsheet
Portugal Cuba site factsheet
Portugal Malcata mountains site factsheet
Portugal Serra de Penha Garcia e Campina de Toulões site factsheet
Portugal Serra do Caldeirão site factsheet
Portugal Vila Fernando site factsheet
Romania Aliman - Adamclisi site factsheet
Romania Allah Bair - Capidava site factsheet
Romania Almăjului Mountains - Locvei site factsheet
Romania Babadag wood site factsheet
Romania Balta Albă-Amara-Jirlău site factsheet
Romania Balta Mică a Brăilei site factsheet
Romania Băneasa - Canaraua Fetei site factsheet
Romania Blahniţa site factsheet
Romania Braţul Borcea site factsheet
Romania Calafat - Ciuperceni - Dunăre site factsheet
Romania Câmpia Crişurilor site factsheet
Romania Câmpia Nirului - Valea lerului site factsheet
Romania Comana site factsheet
Romania Confluenţa Jiu - Dunăre site factsheet
Romania Confluenţa Olt - Dunăre site factsheet
Romania Danube Delta site factsheet
Romania Dealurile Dorobanţu site factsheet
Romania Denis Tepe site factsheet
Romania Dobrogei gorge site factsheet
Romania Dumbrăveni - Plopeni site factsheet
Romania Dunăre - Canarale - Hârşova site factsheet
Romania Dunăre - Ostroave site factsheet
Romania Dunărea Veche (Braţul Măcin) site factsheet
Romania Gruia - Gârla Mare site factsheet
Romania Hagieni forest site factsheet
Romania Hunedoara Timişană site factsheet
Romania Kogălniceanu - Gura Ialomiţei site factsheet
Romania Măcin - Niculiţel site factsheet
Romania Maglavit site factsheet
Romania Mures river lower flood-plain site factsheet
Romania Nerei gorge - Beuşniţa site factsheet
Romania Ostrovu Lung - Gostinu site factsheet
Romania Radomir wood site factsheet
Romania Stepa Casimcea site factsheet
Romania Stepa Saraiu - Horea site factsheet
Romania Timiş river flood-plain site factsheet
Russia (European) Achikol'skiye lakes site factsheet
Russia (European) Barchan Sarykum and Narat-Tyube site factsheet
Russia (European) Buinakskaya depression site factsheet
Russia (European) Imeretinskaya lowland site factsheet
Russia (European) Irgaklinski forest site factsheet
Russia (European) Karakol'skiye lakes site factsheet
Russia (European) Karanogaiskiye steppes site factsheet
Russia (European) Kayakentski reserve site factsheet
Russia (European) Kosobo-Kelebski reserve site factsheet
Russia (European) Lower reaches of Sulak river site factsheet
Russia (European) Shur-Dere and Rubas foothills site factsheet
Russia (European) Sochinsky National Park site factsheet
Russia (European) Taman' site factsheet
Russia (European) Yangiyurtovski reserve and Bakas fen site factsheet
Slovakia Dolné Považie site factsheet
Slovenia Slovenske gorice site factsheet
Spain Cogul-Alfés steppes site factsheet
Spain Córdoba countryside site factsheet
Spain El Valle, Altaona and Escalona mountains site factsheet
Spain Guadalentín saltmarshes site factsheet
Spain Hoya de Baza site factsheet
Spain Hoya de Guadix site factsheet
Spain Lerida steppes site factsheet
Spain Pela mountain range-Orellana reservoir-Zorita site factsheet
Spain Plain between Cáceres and Trujillo-Aldea del Cano site factsheet
Tajikistan Aktash massif site factsheet
Tajikistan Ishkashim site factsheet
Tajikistan Kattasay and Daganasay Reservoirs site factsheet
Tajikistan Kayrakkum Reservoir site factsheet
Tajikistan Mogoltau massif site factsheet
Tajikistan Sarazm site factsheet
Turkmenistan Badhyz site factsheet
Turkmenistan Nargyz site factsheet
Turkmenistan Saryyazy site factsheet
Turkmenistan Tejen site factsheet
Ukraine Kremenets'kyj forest site factsheet
Uzbekistan Aktepe Reservoir and Three Lakes site factsheet
Uzbekistan Dzhum-Dzhum site factsheet
Uzbekistan Kagan Fish Farm site factsheet
Uzbekistan Middle reaches of the Sherabad River site factsheet
Uzbekistan Sarmysh Nature Park site factsheet
Uzbekistan Vardanzi site factsheet
Uzbekistan Zarafshan State Nature Reserve site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane suitable non-breeding
Forest Temperate suitable breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Savanna Dry major non-breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 2400 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents / Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation


Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Coracias garrulus. Downloaded from on 18/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 18/04/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Coraciidae (Rollers)
Species name author Linnaeus, 1758
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 11,400,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species