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European Roller Coracias garrulus
BirdLife is updating this factsheet for the 2016 Red List
Please email us with any relevant information

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2015 Least Concern
2012 Near Threatened
2008 Near Threatened
2005 Near Threatened
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type   Average mass 146 g


  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 11,400,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 100000-499999 poor Estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing poor Suspected -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.6 - - -
Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 75,000-158,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). The European population is thought to hold around 40% of the global breeding range therefore a very approximate estimate of the global population is 188,000-395,000 mature individuals or 282,000-593,000 individuals. Here placed in the band 100,000-499,999 mature individuals and 200,000-600,000 individuals.
Trend justification: The species was previously thought to be undergoing sharp declines in Europe, however new data compiled for the 2015 European Red List of Birds suggests that the population is declining at a less severe rate, with the breeding population decreasing by c. 5-20% over three generations (16.8 years) (however many national populations in central and eastern Europe are still declining) (BirdLife International 2015). Negative trends are still reported for northern European populations such as Lithuania as well as Latvia, Poland, Belarus and Estonia (L. Raudonikis in litt. 2015). Some southern European populations have also declined: in the past century, the species has gone extinct in Germany, Denmark, Sweden (Snow & Perrins, 1998) and Finland (Avilés et al. 1999), possibly due to habitat loss as a result of agricultural intensification (Snow & Perrins 1998). In Central Europe, extinctions occurred in some areas around 25 years ago with no evidence of recolonization (M. Vogrin in litt. 2015).

It is thought to be relatively common in Tajikistan (D. Ewbank in litt. 2015) and in Central Asia (Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Krygystan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) an analysis of observations of this species suggests that a strong or moderate decline is unlikely whilst a weaker decline cannot be excluded due to limitations in the data (R. Ayé in litt. 2015). The species is considered common in Uzbekistan by ornithologists however significant habitat loss has occurred suggesting the species may be declining (R. Kashkarov in litt. 2015). Populations in the Middle East have not apparently exhibited declines. Europe holds approximately 40% of the global breeding range, considering new information from Central Asia which suggests the species has not declined significantly and assuming that populations in the Middle East and north-west Africa have also not declined significantly since they were last assessed, the population is not thought to be undergoing significant declines.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Afghanistan Native Extant Yes      
Albania Native Extant Yes      
Algeria Native Extant        
Angola Native Extant        
Armenia Native Extant Yes      
Austria Native Extant Yes      
Azerbaijan Native Extant Yes      
Bahrain Native Extant     Yes  
Belarus Native Extant Yes      
Belgium Vagrant Extant        
Benin Native Extant        
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant Yes      
Botswana Native Extant        
Bulgaria Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Burkina Faso Native Extant        
Burundi Native Extant        
Cameroon Native Extant        
Cape Verde Vagrant Extant        
Central African Republic Native Extant        
Chad Native Extant        
China (mainland) Native Extant Yes      
Comoros Vagrant Extant        
Congo Native Extant        
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Native Extant        
Côte d'Ivoire Native Extant        
Croatia Native Extant Yes      
Cyprus Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Czech Republic Native Extant Yes      
Denmark Vagrant Extant     Yes  
Djibouti Native Extant        
Egypt Native Extant        
Eritrea Native Extant        
Estonia Native Extant Yes      
Ethiopia Native Extant        
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Vagrant Extant        
Finland Vagrant Extant Yes      
France Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Gabon Native Extant        
Gambia Native Extant        
Georgia Native Extant Yes      
Germany Native Extant   Yes    
Ghana Native Extant   Yes    
Gibraltar (to UK) Native Extant        
Greece Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Guinea-Bissau Native Extant        
Hungary Native Extant Yes      
Iceland Vagrant Extant        
India Native Extant Yes      
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Iraq Native Extant     Yes Yes
Ireland Vagrant Extant        
Israel Native Extant Yes      
Italy Native Extant Yes      
Jordan Native Extant     Yes  
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes      
Kenya Native Extant        
Kuwait Native Extant     Yes  
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant Yes      
Latvia Native Extant Yes      
Lebanon Native Extant     Yes  
Lesotho Native Extant        
Libya Native Extant        
Liechtenstein Vagrant Extant        
Lithuania Native Extant Yes      
Luxembourg Vagrant Extant        
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant Yes      
Malawi Native Extant        
Mali Native Extant        
Malta Native Extant        
Mauritania Native Extant        
Moldova Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Montenegro Native Extant Yes      
Morocco Native Extant        
Mozambique Native Extant        
Namibia Native Extant        
Netherlands Vagrant Extant        
Niger Native Extant   Yes    
Nigeria Native Extant        
Norway Vagrant Extant Yes   Yes  
Oman Native Extant     Yes  
Pakistan Native Extant Yes      
Palestinian Authority Territories Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Poland Native Extant Yes      
Portugal Native Extant Yes      
Qatar Native Extant     Yes  
Romania Native Extant Yes      
Russia Native Extant Yes      
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes      
Rwanda Native Extant        
San Marino Unknown Extant Yes   Yes  
São Tomé e Príncipe Vagrant Extant        
Saudi Arabia Native Extant     Yes  
Senegal Native Extant        
Serbia Native Extant Yes      
Seychelles Vagrant Extant   Yes Yes  
Slovakia Native Extant Yes      
Slovenia Native Extant Yes      
Somalia Native Extant        
South Africa Native Extant        
South Sudan Native Extant     Yes  
Spain Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Sudan Native Extant        
Swaziland Native Extant        
Sweden Native Extinct Yes      
Switzerland Vagrant Extant Yes      
Syria Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Tajikistan Native Extant Yes      
Tanzania Native Extant        
Tunisia Native Extant        
Turkey Native Extant Yes      
Turkmenistan Native Extant Yes      
Uganda Native Extant        
Ukraine Native Extant Yes   Yes  
United Arab Emirates Native Extant Yes   Yes  
United Kingdom Vagrant Extant        
Uzbekistan Native Extant Yes      
Western Sahara Native Extant        
Yemen Native Extant     Yes  
Zambia Native Extant        
Zimbabwe Native Extant        

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Austria South-east Styrian hill country site factsheet
Belarus Biarezinski zapaviednik site factsheet
Belarus Mid Prypiac' site factsheet
Bulgaria Emine site factsheet
Bulgaria Ludogorie site factsheet
Bulgaria Nikopolsko Plateau site factsheet
Bulgaria Obnova Fish-ponds site factsheet
Bulgaria Provadiysko-Royaksko plateau site factsheet
Bulgaria Sredna Gora site factsheet
Bulgaria Zlatiata site factsheet
Cyprus Akamas and Agia Aikaterini – Agia Paraskevi Gorges site factsheet
Cyprus Akrotiri Peninsula - Episkopi Cliffs site factsheet
Cyprus Cha Potami River site factsheet
Cyprus Diarizos Valley site factsheet
Cyprus Ezousa Valley and Cliffs site factsheet
Cyprus Karpasia Peninsula - Kleides Islands site factsheet
Cyprus Koshi-Pallourokampos and Troulloi Plain site factsheet
Cyprus Panagia Stazousa River site factsheet
Cyprus Paramali River and Plateau site factsheet
Cyprus Pentadaktylos Mountains site factsheet
Cyprus Pentashoinos River site factsheet
Cyprus Saramas Valley site factsheet
Cyprus Xeros Valley and Hanoutaris Cliffs site factsheet
France Camargue site factsheet
France Crau site factsheet
France Etangs de Vendres, Pissevache et Lespignan site factsheet
France Gorges du Gardon site factsheet
France Hautes garrigues du Montpellierais site factsheet
France Marais entre Crau et Grand Rhône: Meyranne, Chanoine, Plan de Bourg et Salins du Caban site factsheet
France Petite Camargue fluvio-lacustre site factsheet
France Plaine des Maures site factsheet
France Plateau de l'Arbois, garrigues de Lancon et chaîne des Côtes site factsheet
Hungary Alkaline pusztas of Upper Kiskunság site factsheet
Hungary Borsodi-Mezőség site factsheet
Hungary Gerje-sik site factsheet
Hungary Heves Plain site factsheet
Hungary Lower Tisza Valley site factsheet
Italy Daunia mountains site factsheet
Italy Gargano Promontory and Capitanata Wetlands site factsheet
Italy Litorale Romano site factsheet
Italy Marchesato and River Neto site factsheet
Italy River Biferno site factsheet
Kazakhstan Altyn-Emel National Park site factsheet
Kazakhstan Arys-Karaktau State Reserved Zone site factsheet
Kazakhstan Chingiztau Mountains site factsheet
Kazakhstan Ili River Delta site factsheet
Kazakhstan Kapchagay Canyon site factsheet
Kazakhstan Topar Lake System site factsheet
Kazakhstan Toraygyr Ridge site factsheet
Kazakhstan Zhusandala site factsheet
Kenya Ol Ari Nyiro site factsheet
Kyrgyzstan Tulek Valley site factsheet
Latvia Garkalne forest site factsheet
Lithuania Dzukija National Park site factsheet
Lithuania Initial area of Aukstaitija NP site factsheet
Lithuania Labanoras Regional Park site factsheet
Lithuania Sartai Regional Park and Rokiskis Fishponds site factsheet
Lithuania Simonys & Ramuldava forest complex site factsheet
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Gradsko-Rosoman-Negotino site factsheet
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Lake Mantovo and river Lakavica site factsheet
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Ovche Pole site factsheet
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Pelagonia site factsheet
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of River Pchinja-river Petroshnica-river Kriva Reka site factsheet
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of River Topolka-river Babuna-river Bregalnica site factsheet
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Tikvesh Region site factsheet
Poland Kurpie Site site factsheet
Poland Omulew and Plodownica Rivers Valleys site factsheet
Poland Sandomierz Forest site factsheet
Portugal Castro Verde plains site factsheet
Portugal Cuba site factsheet
Portugal Malcata mountains site factsheet
Portugal Serra de Penha Garcia e Campina de Toulões site factsheet
Portugal Serra do Caldeirão site factsheet
Portugal Vila Fernando site factsheet
Romania Aliman - Adamclisi site factsheet
Romania Allah Bair - Capidava site factsheet
Romania Almăjului Mountains - Locvei site factsheet
Romania Babadag wood site factsheet
Romania Balta Albă - Amara - Jirlău site factsheet
Romania Balta Mică a Brăilei site factsheet
Romania Băneasa - Canaraua Fetei site factsheet
Romania Blahniţa site factsheet
Romania Braţul Borcea site factsheet
Romania Calafat - Ciuperceni - Dunăre site factsheet
Romania Câmpia Crişurilor site factsheet
Romania Câmpia Nirului - Valea lerului site factsheet
Romania Comana site factsheet
Romania Confluenţa Jiu - Dunăre site factsheet
Romania Confluenţa Olt - Dunăre site factsheet
Romania Danube Delta site factsheet
Romania Dealurile Dorobanţu site factsheet
Romania Denis Tepe site factsheet
Romania Dobrogei gorge site factsheet
Romania Dumbrăveni - Plopeni site factsheet
Romania Dunăre - Canarale - Hârşova site factsheet
Romania Dunăre - Ostroave site factsheet
Romania Dunărea Veche (Braţul Măcin) site factsheet
Romania Gruia - Gârla Mare site factsheet
Romania Hagieni forest site factsheet
Romania Hunedoara Timişană site factsheet
Romania Kogălniceanu - Gura Ialomiţei site factsheet
Romania Măcin - Niculiţel site factsheet
Romania Maglavit site factsheet
Romania Mures river lower flood-plain site factsheet
Romania Nerei gorge - Beuşniţa site factsheet
Romania Ostrovu Lung - Gostinu site factsheet
Romania Radomir wood site factsheet
Romania Stepa Casimcea site factsheet
Romania Stepa Saraiu - Horea site factsheet
Romania Timiş river flood-plain site factsheet
Russia (European) Achikol'skiye lakes site factsheet
Russia (European) Barchan Sarykum and Narat-Tyube site factsheet
Russia (European) Buinakskaya depression site factsheet
Russia (European) Irgaklinski forest site factsheet
Russia (European) Karakol'skiye lakes site factsheet
Russia (European) Karanogaiskiye steppes site factsheet
Russia (European) Kayakentski reserve site factsheet
Russia (European) Kosobo-Kelebski reserve site factsheet
Russia (European) Lower reaches of Sulak river site factsheet
Russia (European) Shur-Dere and Rubas foothills site factsheet
Russia (European) Sochinsky National Park site factsheet
Russia (European) Taman' site factsheet
Russia (European) Yangiyurtovski reserve and Bakas fen site factsheet
Serbia Subotica lakes and sandy terrain site factsheet
Slovakia Dolné Považie site factsheet
Slovenia Slovenske gorice site factsheet
Spain Cogul-Alfés steppes site factsheet
Spain Córdoba countryside site factsheet
Spain El Valle, Altaona and Escalona mountains site factsheet
Spain Guadalentín saltmarshes site factsheet
Spain Hoya de Baza site factsheet
Spain Hoya de Guadix site factsheet
Spain Lerida steppes site factsheet
Spain Pela mountain range-Orellana reservoir-Zorita site factsheet
Spain Plain between Cáceres and Trujillo-Aldea del Cano site factsheet
Tajikistan Aktash massif site factsheet
Tajikistan Ishkashim site factsheet
Tajikistan Kattasay and Daganasay Reservoirs site factsheet
Tajikistan Kayrakkum Reservoir site factsheet
Tajikistan Mogoltau massif site factsheet
Tajikistan Sarazm site factsheet
Turkmenistan Badhyz site factsheet
Turkmenistan Nargyz site factsheet
Turkmenistan Saryyazy site factsheet
Turkmenistan Tejen site factsheet
Ukraine Kremenets'kyj forest site factsheet
Uzbekistan Aktepe Reservoir and Three Lakes site factsheet
Uzbekistan Dzhum-Dzhum site factsheet
Uzbekistan Kagan Fish Farm site factsheet
Uzbekistan Middle reaches of the Sherabad River site factsheet
Uzbekistan Sarmysh Nature Park site factsheet
Uzbekistan Vardanzi site factsheet
Uzbekistan Zarafshan State Nature Reserve site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land Suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land Suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland Suitable breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane Suitable non-breeding
Forest Temperate Suitable breeding
Grassland Temperate Suitable breeding
Savanna Dry Major non-breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation Suitable breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry Major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 2400 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents / Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation


Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - - Subsistence, National
Food - human - - - Subsistence, National
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Coracias garrulus. Downloaded from on 26/10/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 26/10/2016.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Coraciidae (Rollers)
Species name author Linnaeus, 1758
Population size 100000-499999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 11,400,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species
- 2015 European Red List assessment