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Javan Trogon Apalharpactes reinwardtii

Justification
This species has been downlisted to Vulnerable on the basis that its population is estimated to be larger than previously thought; however, its population remains small and inferred to be in on-going decline as a result of habitat loss and some trapping pressure.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Identification
34 cm. A striking green and yellow trogon. Upperparts green, except for a blue tail. Underparts largely yellow with a green breast band. The bill is red and the naked skin around the eye is blue. Voice A dry, high rattling "sterrrr".

Distribution and population
Apalharpactes reinwardtii is known from seven forested mountains in West Java, Indonesia: Gunung Halimun, Gunung Salak, Gunung Gede-Pangrango, Gunung Patuha-Tilu, Gunung Wayang, Gunung Papandayan and Ciwidey. There are only recent records from four of these (Halimun, Salak, Gede-Pangrango and Ciwidey). The historical range totals 11,600 km2. Although it has been stated to occur at 800-2,600 m, little forest remains below 1,000 m away from Halimun, and the species appears to be rarer at higher elevations. The only site where the species appears to be common now is Gunung Halimun, but only at lower elevations. The population size of this species may be as low as a few hundred pairs (Collar and van Balen 2002).

Population justification
The population size has been estimated to be as low as a few hundred pairs (Collar and van Balen 2002); however, it is easily overlooked, and there is still extensive forest east of Cibodas/Halimun that remains to be surveyed, thus it may be more common and widespread than recent observations suggest (B. van Balen in litt. 2013). It seems likely that more than 250 mature individuals occupy each of the large areas of forest at Gunung Gede and Halimun (C. Robson in litt. 2013). The species's population is therefore placed in the band for 2,500-9,999 mature individuals.

Trend justification
Although much of the population may now be restricted to protected areas on Java, it is suspected to be continuing to decline at a moderate rate, owing to the on-going encroachment of forests by agriculture and urban development, as well as limited trapping pressure (A. A. Supriatna in litt. 2012, B. van Balen in litt. 2013).

Ecology
It appears to favour mid-montane forest, where it feeds on a variety of invertebrates taken by aerial sallying or by perch-gleaning. It also feeds on fruit and will occasionally join mixed-species flocks (del Hoyo et al. 2001).

Threats
Forest loss, degradation and fragmentation, through widespread agricultural encroachment and localised development (e.g. holiday resorts and geothermal projects), are on-going threats in the species's altitudinal range. It also appears to suffer limited trapping pressure (A. A. Supriatna in litt. 2012, B. van Balen in litt. 2013).

Conservation Actions Underway
The species has been recorded in Gunung Halimun and Gunung Gede-Pangrango National Parks. Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct further surveys for the species at all mountains potentially within its range to clarify its current distribution and population status. Propose key sites for designation as protected areas, or as extensions to existing reserves. Work with local authorities and relevant companies to minimise the impact of tourism and development projects on forested mountains within its range.

References
Collar, N. J.; Van Balen, S. 2002. The Blue-tailed Trogon Harpactes (Apalharpactes reinwardtii): species limits and conservation status. Forktail 18: 121-125.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 2001. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 6: Mousebirds to Hornbills. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 June 2012).

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

View photos and videos and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Allinson, T, Benstead, P., Bird, J., Symes, A. & Taylor, J.

Contributors
Brickle, N., Iqbal, M., Robson, C., Supriatna, A. & van Balen, B.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Apalharpactes reinwardtii. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Javan trogon (Apalharpactes reinwardtii) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Trogonidae (Trogons)
Species name author (Temminck, 1822)
Population size 2500-9999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) -
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species