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This species qualifies as Endangered because its population is now estimated to be declining very rapidly owing to hunting and habitat destruction. It also has a small range and is known from few locations in a narrow altitudinal band, which is subject to habitat loss.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
The two disjunct populations currently treated as subspecies are virtually certain to represent two different species as they are separated by more than 1000 km, differ in morphology, song, time of singing, altitude at which found, and habitat that they occupy24
Crax unicornis Stotz et al. (1996), Crax unicornis BirdLife International (2004), Crax unicornis unicornis BirdLife International (2004), Crax unicornis unicornis Stotz et al. (1996)
85-95 cm. Large, black cracid with long frontal casque. All-black, with white vent and tip to tail. Bright red bill and pale blue casque. In the Bolivian population the casque is an upright horn while in the Peruvian taxon koepckeae the casque is flattened against the head, shorter and rounder. Koepckeae also has only a thin white tip to the tail. The legs are normally pale red but yellowish in the male in the breeding season. Female like male, but also has a rufous colour phase. Voice In Bolivia song is a booming series of four phrases lasting c.9 seconds and repeated every 15 seconds, final phrase is a far carrying emphatic hmm. In Peru song appears to be a single booming phrase of 3 to 4 notes repeated every 4 seconds. Alarm call is an explosive disyllabic k-sop. Hints Best located when booming during the main part of the breeding season (probably August-December in Bolivia, November to March in Peru), but separation of Bolivian taxon from booming Razor-billed Curassow Mitu tuberosa is difficult unless close enough to hear all phrases.
Related state of the world's birds case studies
Banks, K. 1998. Breeding the Southern Helmeted Curassow at Birdworld. Avicultural Magazine 104: 152-156.
Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.
Cox, G.; Read, J. M.; Clarke, R. O. S.; Easty, V. S. 1997. Studies of Horned Curassow Pauxi unicornis in Bolivia. Bird Conservation International 7: 199-211.
Dinerstein, E.; Olson, D. M.; Graham, D. J.; Webster, A. L.; Primm, S. A.; Bookbinder, M. P.; Ledec, G. 1995. A conservation assesssment of the terrestrial ecoregions of Latin America and the Caribbean. World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Gastanaga, M. 2005. Southern Horned Curassow (Pauxi unicornis koepckeae) conservation project in Sira Mountains, Peru (October 2005): education project report.
Gastañaga, M. 2006. Peruvian Horned Curassow (Pauxi unicornis koepckeae) rediscovered in the Sira Mountains, Peru. Bulletin of the Cracid Specialist Group 22: 15-18.
Gastanaga, M., Macleod, R., Hennessey, B., Nunez, J.U., Puse, E., Arrascue, A., Hoyos, J., Chambi, W.M., Vasquez, J. and Engblom, G. 2011. A study of the parrot trade in Peru and the potential importance of internal trade for threatened species. Bird Conservation International 21(1): 76-85.
Gastañaga, M.; Hennessey, A. B.; MacLeod, R. 2007. Rediscovery of Southern Horned Curassow Pauxi unicornis koepckeae in Cerros del Sira, Peru. Cotinga 28: 63-66.
Hennessey, A. B. 2004. A bird survey of Torcillo-Sarayoj, the lower Yungas of Madidi National Park, Bolivia. Cotinga: 73-78.
Herzog, S. K.; Fjeldså, J.; Kessler, M.; Balderrama, J. A. 1999. Ornithological surveys in the Cordillera Cocapata, depto Cochabamba, Bolivia, a transition zone between humid and dry intermontane Andean habitats. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 119: 162-177.
Herzog, S. K.; Kessler, M. 1998. In search of the last Horned Curassows Pauxi unicornis in Bolivia. Cotinga 10: 46-50.
Macleod, R.; Soria, R.; Gastañaga, M. 2006. Horned Curassow (Pauxi unicornis. In: Brooks, D. M. (ed.), Conserving cracids: the most threatened family of birds in the Americas, pp. 61-63. Misc. Pub. Houston Mus. Nat. Sci.
Maillard, O.Z. 2006. Reciente espécimen de la pava copete de piedra (Pauxi unicornis) para Bolivia. Kempffiana 2(1): 95-98.
Mee, A. 1999. Habitat association and notes on the Southern Helmeted Curassow (Pauxi unicornis) in Parque Nacional Carrasco, Bolivia. 9: 15-19.
Mee, A.; Ohlson, J.; Stewart, I.; Wilson, M.; Ã–rn, P.; Ferreyra, J. D. 2002. The Cerros del Sira revisited: birds of submontane and montane forest. Cotinga 18: 46-57.
Renjifo, J.; Renjifo, J. T. 1997. Pauxi unicornis: Biologia y Ecologia. In: Strahl, S.D.; Beaujon, S.; Brooks, D.M.; Begazo, A.J.; Sedaghatkish, G.; Olmos, F. (ed.), The Cracidae: their biology and conservation, pp. 89-92. Hancock House, Surrey, Canada.
Young, K. R.; León, B. 1999. Peru's humid eastern montane forests: an overview of their physical settings, biological diversity, human use and settlement, and conservation needs. Centre for Research on Cultural and Biological Diversity of Andean Rainforests (DIVA), Ronde, Denmark.
Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.
Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Keane, A., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A.
Fjeldså, J., Gastañaga, M., Hennessey, A., Lloyd, H., MacLeod, R., Maccormack, A.
IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.
BirdLife International (2013) Species factsheet: Pauxi unicornis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/12/2013. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2013) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/12/2013.
This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.
To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife
To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.
Additional resources for this species
|Current IUCN Red List category||Endangered|
|Family||Cracidae (Guans and curassows)|
|Species name author||Bond & Meyer de Schauensee, 1939|
|Population size||1000-4999 mature individuals|
|Distribution size (breeding/resident)||4,400 km2|
|Links to further information|
|- Additional Information on this species|