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Helmeted Curassow Pauxi pauxi
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Justification
This species has a very small population comprising very small subpopulations, which are declining owing to habitat loss and hunting. It therefore qualifies as Endangered.

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Synonym(s)
Crax pauxi Stotz et al. (1996), Crax pauxi BirdLife International (2004), Crax pauxi pauxi BirdLife International (2004), Crax pauxi pauxi Stotz et al. (1996)

Identification
91 cm. Large, black, terrestrial, cracid, with bizarre bluish fig-shaped casque on head. Dull red bill and legs. Male and normal-phase female mostly black with greenish and bluish gloss to mantle and breast, and dull black scaling. White belly, undertail-coverts and tail tip. Rare rufous-phase female rufous-brown, finely barred and vermiculated black. Blackish head and neck. Blackish tail broadly tipped buffy-white. White belly and underparts. Voice During breeding season, male sings low, ventriloquial droning boom, like groan of old tree, 6-10 four-part drones per minute. Alarm call a soft, repeated tzsuk.

Distribution and population
Pauxi pauxi occurs in west Venezuela and north Colombia. Nominate pauxi was formerly common from the Cordillera de la Costa west to the Cordillera de Mérida, Venezuela, and on the north-eastern slopes of the East Andes in Colombia (Norte de Santander, Boyacá and Arauca) and adjacent Venezuela (south-west Táchira). It is also known from three mountain ranges in Falcón, Venezuela, but may have recently disappeared from one (in Morrocoy National Park) (Silva 1999). It might once have occurred as far east as Monagas (Silva 1999). The population has declined considerably, and the species is now generally rare and occurs at low densities (Silva 1999, Wege and Long 1995). In Venezuela, there is a strong correlation between its current distribution and national parks (Silva 1999). Race gilliardi from the Sierra de Perijá on the Colombian-Venezuelan border is also believed to be declining.

Population justification
Comments from P. Salaman (in litt. undated) and C. Sharpe (in litt. undated) indicate that the population fell below 2,500 individuals during 2007. It is thus placed in the band 1,000-2,499 mature individuals, equating to 1,500-3,749 individuals in total, rounded here to 1,500-4,000 individuals. Population density in Venezuela has been estimated to be 2 individuals / km2 in Aragua, 8 individuals / km2 in Yaracuy, and 5 individuals / km2 in Lara state. In Colombia 4.8 individuals / km2 were found in Tamá National Park.

Trend justification
A moderate and on-going population decline is suspected on the basis of rates of habitat loss and levels of hunting.

Ecology
It is restricted to subtropical cloud-forest in steep, mountainous regions at 500 to 2,200 m (mostly 1,000-1,500 m), where it favours humid gorges with dense undergrowth. It tends to avoid forest edges. Nests are built in March, and young hatch around mid-May. Pairs or family parties forage, mainly terrestrially, for fallen fruit, seeds, tender leaves, grasses and buds (Schäfer 1953, Silva 1999). Five nests in Yacambú National Park were located between 5.5 and 15 metres up in trees (J. Ortega in litt. 2012). It may make some seasonal altitudinal movements (Strahl et al. 1997).

Threats
Its decline results from hunting and long-term destruction, fragmentation and modification of its habitat. The Sierra de Perijá is being progressively deforested in both countries for cattle-ranching at lower altitudes and for narcotics cultivation higher up (C. J. Sharpe in litt. 1997). Hunting continues (even in long-established, and relatively well-resourced protected areas such as Henri Pittier National Park [C. J. Sharpe. J. P. Rodríguez and F. Rojas-Suárez in litt. 1999]) and is probably even increasing in the wake of infrastructure development. Birds are hunted for food and, at least formerly, for traditional jewellery; for instance in the buffer zone of Tamá National Park (Colombia) each household had at least five skulls and eggs as hunting trophies (V. Setina in litt. 2007), and thirty skulls and an egg were found in one home (Setina et al. 2008).Within the Tamá National Park itself, all of 45 inhabitants interviewed in 2006-2007 had eaten Cracids, stating that they preferred Helmeted Curassows to Wattled Guans (Setina et al. 2008). In the same area, the U’wa indians hunt the species for food, for sale at local markets and for the "helmet", which is used to make aphrodisiacs (Setina et al. 2010). It was considered Endangered in a recent global assessment published by the IUCN-SSC Cracid Specialist Group (Naveda-Rodríguez and Strahl 2006), and is classified as Vulnerable and Endangered in Colombia and Venezuela respectively (Renjifo et al. 2002, Sharpe 2008). It is one of the four top priority species for bird conservation in Venezuela (Rodríguez et al. 2004)


Conservation Actions Underway
The species is managed under the North American Cracid Taxonomic Advisory Group.  In northern Venezuela, almost all remaining forests are now legally protected (Silva 1999), but this has not averted threats. There are records from 18 Venezuelan national parks and the ineffectively protected El Cocuy National Park, Arauca, Colombia (Wege and Long 1995). Captive breeding and reintroduction in Venezuela has been proposed (humboldt.org.co, 2006) whilst captive breeding programmes already exist in Columbia and the US (Brook and Strahl 2000). In Venezuela, it is legally protected (República de Venezuela. 1996a, b) and an education programme draws attention to the species and its habitat (Strahl et al. 1997). A new reseve, appropriately named Pauxi pauxi Bird Reseve has been established in the Cerro de la Paz to protect the species (P. Salaman in litt. 2007).
Conservation Actions Proposed
Determine its status in the Colombian East Andes. Enforce existing laws on hunting and habitat protection (Strahl and Silva 1997). Develop educational programmes to combat hunting (Strahl and Silva 1997). Further develop captive breeding programmes to support future reintroductions.


References
Ana María Franco Maya. 2006. Proyecto de reproducción y reintroducción del paujil copete de piedra (Pauxi pauxi). web page. Available at: http://www.humboldt.org.co/conservacion/paujil.htm. (Accessed: 01/08/2013).

Brooks, D. M.; Strahl, S. D. 2000. Curassows, guans and chachalacas: status survey and conservation action plan for Cracids 2000-2004. IUCN/SSC Cracid Specialist Group, Gland, Swizerland and Cambridge, UK.

Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Matalobos, Maria de los Angeles Diaz. 1991. Conservation of the northern helmeted curassow (Pauxi pauxi) in Venezuela with particular reference to captive breeding and population modelling. PhD diss., Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust and University of Kent at Canterbury.

Robinson, J. G.; Redford, K. H. 1991. Neotropical wildlife use and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Setina, V. J. 2009. Densidad poblacional del paujil copete de piedra (Pauxi pauxi) en la zona amortiguadora del sector sur del Parque Nacional Natural Tama, Norte de Santander. BS, Universidad de Pamplona.

Setina, V.; Berrio, D. J.; Lizcano, D. J.; Suárez, C. A. 2008. Perceptions and attitudes toward Helmeted Curassow (Pauxi pauxi) and Wattled Guan (Aburria aburri) in Tama National Park, Colombia. Bulletin of the Cracid Specialist Group 25: 30-33.

Silva, J. L. 1999. Notes on the distribution of Pauxi pauxi and Aburria aburria in Venezuela. Wilson Bulletin 111: 564-569.

Strahl, S. D.; Beaujon, S.; Brooks, D. M.; Begazo, A. J.; Sedaghatkish, G.; Olmos, F. 1997. The Cracidae: their biology and conservation. Hancock House Publishers, Surrey, B.C. Canada and Blaine, W.A. USA.

Strahl, S.; Rojas-S, F.; Herrera, A. M. 1997. En peligro: el Pauji Copete de Piedra (Pauxi pauxi) un programa de concientización ambiental. In: Strahl, S.D.; Beaujon, D.; Brooks, D.M.; Begazo, A.J.; Sedaghatkish, G.; Olmos, F. (ed.), The Cracidae: their biology and conservation, pp. 197-200. Hancock House Publishers, Surrey, Canada and Blaine, USA.

Strahl, S.; Silva, J. L. 1997. The status of the family Cracidae in Venezuela. In: Strahl, S.D.; Beaujon, D.; Brooks, D.M.; Begazo, A.J.; Sedaghatkish, G.; Olmos, F. (ed.), The cracidae: their biology and conservation, pp. 383-395. Hancock House Publishers, Surrey, Canada and Blaine, USA.

Wege, D. C.; Long, A. J. 1995. Key Areas for threatened birds in the Neotropics. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomo

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Symes, A., Mahood, S., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A.

Contributors
Sharpe, C J, Strahl, S., Rodríguez, J., Rojas-Suárez, F., Cortes, O., Setina, V., Salaman, P., Ortega, J.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Pauxi pauxi. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/04/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Northern helmeted curassow (Pauxi pauxi) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Endangered
Family Cracidae (Guans and curassows)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1766)
Population size 1000-2499 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 35,100 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species