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Eared Quetzal Euptilotis neoxenus

Justification
This species is classed as Near Threatened because it probably has a moderately small population, which was recently thought to be stable, but could be threatened by deforestation within its range. Surveys are required, and if the population is found to be small and declining, the species may qualify for a higher threat category.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Distribution and population
Euptilotis neoxenus occurs almost throughout the mountains of west Mexico, in Sonora, Chihuahua, Sinaloa, Durango, Nayarit, Zacatecas, Jalisco and Michoacán states, and even sporadically within Arizona and New Mexico, USA. Until recently, it was considered very uncommon and locally distributed, but this probably stemmed from a lack of field studies in appropriate areas (Lammertink et al. 1996). Surveys in 1995 showed it to be common in primary habitat, and frequent (including nesting) in disturbed areas and riparian corridors in otherwise largely logged areas (Lammertink et al. 1996). The population is believed to be stable (Lammertink et al. 1996).

Population justification
Partners in Flight estimated the population to number fewer than 50,000 individuals (A. Panjabi in litt. 2008), thus it is placed in the band 20,000-49,999 individuals here.

Trend justification
The population is believed to be stable (Lammertink et al. 1996).

Ecology
This species inhabits montane pine, pine-oak and pine-evergreen forests (del Hoyo et al. 2001). It is found in the upper and middle storeys of forest, particularly along watercourses in canyons, generally at 1,800-3,000 m, being most abundant at 2,100-2,800 m. It tends to nest in riparian corridors where habitat is generally intact. During winter in Mexico, it may move into lush subtropical and tropical evergreen habitat in barrancas and canyons. It feeds on insects, including moths, and fruit, though lizards are fed to nestlings (González-Rojas et al. 2008). Caterpillars and beetles are reportedly fed to its young. Pairs form in April-June, and breeding occurs in June-October, sometimes as early as April. It nests in tree cavities (del Hoyo et al. 2001, González-Rojas et al. 2008).

Threats
Widespread forest destruction in the region may adversely affect the species through the removal of trees with suitable nesting cavities (Lammertink et al. 1996), a problem compounded by uncertainty over seasonal movements. Competition for cavities may be a limiting factor in breeding success (González-Rojas et al. 2008).


Conservation Actions Underway
La Michilía Biosphere Reserve is one of the most important sites for the species in Mexico (del Hoyo et al. 2001). Conservation Actions Proposed
Carry out surveys to assess the population size. Monitor population trends through regular surveys. Monitor rates of deforestation throughout its range. Increase the area of suitable habitat with protected status. Conduct research into the species's breeding biology. Study the species's movements and dispersal patterns.

References
Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 2001. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 6: Mousebirds to Hornbills. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

González-Rojas, J. I.; Cruz-Nieto, J.; Ruvalcaba-Ortega, I.; Cruz-Nieto, M. A. 2008. Breeding biology of Eared Quetzals in the Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico. Journal of Field Ornithology 79(1): 20-23.

Lammertink, J. M.; Rojas-Tomé, J. A.; Casillas-Orona, F. M.; Otto, R. L. 1996. Status and conservation of old-growth forests and endemic birds in the pine-oak zone of the Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico. Institute for Systematics and Population Biology, Amsterdam.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomoía y la categoría de la Lista Roja de la UICN pudo haber cambiado desde esta publicación.

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Isherwood, I., Sharpe, C J, Taylor, J.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Euptilotis neoxenus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/11/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/11/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Trogonidae (Trogons)
Species name author (Gould, 1838)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Stable
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 247,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species