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Munchique Wood-wren Henicorhina negreti
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Justification
This recently described species is known from an extremely small range which supports a very small population that is continuing to decline (Salaman et al. 2003). For these reasons it is classified as Critically Endangered.

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Identification
11 cm. A typical wood-wren. Sexes are similar, dark brown on the crown with warmer brown upperparts, short wings and tail are lighter warm brown barred with darker barring, prominent white supercilium above black eyestripe and ear coverts streaked white, throat white, chest pale grey, flanks, vent and undertail coverts chestnut, finely barred on the abdomen. Similar spp very similar to Grey-breasted Wood-wren Henicorhina leucophrys, best features to aid separation are barred abdomen and cooler grey upperparts in Munchique Wood-wren. It also has longer tarsi and a shorter tail than Grey-breasted. Voice is distinctive. Voice repeated phrases of 6-12 clear notes, each phrase lasting c.2 seconds.

Distribution and population
This species is restricted to the western Andes of Colombia, and is found where the departments of Chocó, Antioquia and Risaralda meet, in Munchique massif (Valle de Cauca) (Kroodsma and Brewer 2005), in extreme eastern Chocó and south-west Antioquia department, and in extreme south-eastern Chocó near the town of El Cairo where a population of at least 5 individuals was discovered in 2008 (van Oosten and Cortes 2009). It appears to have very specific habitat requirements, being restricted to the Pacific slope of the very peaks of the highest mountains/ridges on the Western Cordillera. The Western Cordillera is the lowest and narrowest of Colombia's three Andean ranges (T. Donegan in litt. 2006). As a result this species's global area of occupancy is tiny. A total of 5-8 territorial pairs or males were registered along a 2-km transect (equating to 10-16 pairs per km2). This represents a much lower density than parapatric populations of Grey-breasted Wood-wren (c.10-14 territorial pairs per 2 km transect) (P. Saraman in litt. 2006, T. Donegan in litt. 2006). Extrapolating the estimated population density across the known range gives a population estimate of 180-288 pairs (P. Salaman in litt. 2006). This extremely small population is likely to be declining owing to ongoing forest clearance. There have been many surveys of the high peaks along the Western Cordillera (both historically and in the past decade) that have failed to record this species, suggesting there are unlikely to be many undiscovered populations remaining (P. Salaman in litt. 2006).

Population justification
Densities could be as high as 1 pair per 1-2 ha. Extrapolating the estimated population density to the Cauca and Antioquia area of occupancy - gives a global population as few as 180 pairs or as many as 288 pairs. Whilst this may prove to be overly conservative, it is based on the data available (P. Salaman in litt. 2006). It is thus best placed in the band 250-999 mature individuals, equating to 375-1,499 individuals in total, rounded here to 350-1,500 individuals.

Trend justification
The species's population is suspected to be declining based on current rates of habitat loss within its very restricted range (Salaman et al. 2003). The likely rate of population decline has not been estimated.

Ecology
It is very specific in its habitat requirements, occurring in extremely wet, stunted cloud forest where it occurs in naturally disturbed forest with patchy successional habitat on steep slopes, typically preferring an extremely dense understorey smothered in epiphytes at forest borders, landslides and along stream gullies. This forest is characterised by almost continuous cloud or fog cover (Kroodsma and Brewer 2005). It has been recorded between 2,250 m and 2,640 m. It feeds on arthropods gleaned from near to the forest floor, typically below 2 m. It associates briefly with passing multi-species flocks (Kroodsma and Brewer 2005).

Threats
Forest clearance affects this species directly, but it also leads to reduced cloud and fog cover and a general drying of the habitat. This allows congeners to colonise the areas where Munchique Wood-wrens currently occur in isolation (T. Donegan in litt. 2006). Climate change has the potential to shift the elevation at which Munchique Wood-wren and Grey-breasted Wood-wren replace one another upwards, potentially reducing the possible range of the species (T. Donegan in litt. 2006). However, of more immediate concern, climate change is contributing to the increase in the severity of dry seasons in the region that have facilitated many human-induced fires in otherwise extremely wet forests (P. Salaman in litt. 2007, 2008). Human pressure in Munchique is escalating. Consequently, deforestation within Munchique National Park, until recently essentially pristine, is now a serious issue and has escalated at an alarming rate (P. Salaman in litt. 2007, 2008).

Conservation Actions Underway
It is known from two protected areas: Munchique National Natural Park (where forest clearance still occurs) and Mirabilis-Swarovski Bird Reserve on Cerro Munchique, which encompasses the majority of the species's range and was formerly threatened by forest clearance but was purchased in 2004 by Fundación ProAves with the support of the American Bird Conservancy and Swarovski Optik (P. Salaman in litt. 2007, 2008). Conservation Actions Proposed
Continue monitoring existing populations and survey new areas for additional subpopulations. Lobby the government to adequately protect known sites, which support this and other threatened species, by directing resources more effectively. Support local organisations seeking to protect key sites.

References
Salaman, P.; Coopmans, P.; Donegan, T. M.; Cortés, A.; Hilty, S. L.; Ortega, L. A.; Mulligan, M. 2003. A new species of Wood-wren (Troglodytidae: Henicorhina) from the Western Andes of Colombia. Ornitología Colombiana: 4-21.

van Oosten, H.; Cortes, O. 2009. First record of Munchique Wood Wren Henicorhina negreti in dpto. Chocó, Colombia. Cotinga: 128.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Species Guardian Action Update

Text account compilers
Bird, J., Butchart, S., Calvert, R., Sharpe, C J & Symes, A.

Contributors
Donegan, T. & Salaman, P.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Henicorhina negreti. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Munchique wood-wren (Henicorhina negreti) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Critically Endangered
Family Troglodytidae (Wrens)
Species name author Salaman, Coopmans, Donegan, Mulligan et al., 2003
Population size 250-999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 8 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species