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NR
 Cyanoramphus saisseti

This taxon is Not Recognised as a species by BirdLife International.

Taxonomic source(s)
Boon, W. M.; Daugherty, C. H.; Chambers, G. K. 2001. The Norfolk Island Green Parrot and New Caledonian Red-crowned Parakeet are distinct species. Emu 101: 113-121.

Taxonomic note
Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously split as C. novaezelandiae, C. cookii (following Christidis and Boles 1994 and Turbott 1990), and C. saisseti (following Boon et al. 2001), and before then C. saisseti was lumped with C. novaezelandiae, with C. cookii treated as a separate species, following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).

Synonym(s)
Cyanoramphus saisetti Boon et al. (2001), Cyanoramphus saisetti

Identification
26 cm. Medium-sized long-tailed green parrot with red on head. Mostly grass-green, paler on underparts, with red forehead and eye-stripe, blue outer wing and obscure small red spot on rear flanks. Immature has less red. Similar spp. Smaller and slimmer than adult Horned Parakeet Eunymphicus cornutus with different head pattern and greener, shorter and more pointed tail. From Rainbow Lorikeet Trichoglossus haematodus by lack of purple head and red breast, slower flight and different habits. Voice Nondescript quiet nasal chattering preep-pruup-, faster and more nasal that New Caledonian Crow Corvus moneduloides and more monotonous than Horned Parakeet. Hints Usually in pairs or small flocks of 5-10. Feeds at all levels from forest canopy to scrub and on ground. (Dutson 2011)

Distribution and population
Cyanoramphus saisetti is endemic to New Caledonia (to France), where it occurs in scattered forests across the main island Grand Terre (Barré and Dutson 2000, Ekstrom et al. 2000, Dutson 2011). It has been observed from Colnett massif in the north to the extreme south of the Goro region but it is absent from the Ile des Pins (Chartendrault and N. Barré in litt. 2007). It is most abundant in the centre of the chain (north of La Foa to Thio and Canala) and the southern tip of New Caledonia, and is scarce in the north (V. Chartendrault and N. Barré in litt. 2007). The species selects forests on ultramafic soils (Legault et al. 2011)

Ecology
It has a scattered range, generally selecting rain forest (Legault et al. 2011) and forest edges, especially for feeding (Legault et al. in press 2012) but is also reported to tolerate niaouli savanna, maquis scrub and humid forest to 1,500 m, although it is known from fewer locations (Barré and Dutson 2000, Ekstrom et al. 2000, Dutson 2011). It is most abundant in Gymnostoma preforests and in wet forests from 400-800 m (Chartendrault and N. Barré in litt. 2007, C. Meresse in litt. 2009, Dutson 2011). The nesting period is October-April (J. Theuerkauf et al. in litt. 2007). Co-operative breeding has been reported in this species (Theuerkauf et al. 2009).




Threats
It is only common in the south in sites at risk from nickel mining so may suffer significant habitat loss in the near future. As a hole-nester and ground-forager, it may be susceptible to predation by introduced mammalian predators, particularity Feral Cats Felis catus and possibly Black Rats Rattus rattus (Gula et al. 2010). Since the species breeds in remote areas and its nests are hard to find, poaching is unlikely to be a major threat (Pain et al. 2006). Particularly wet (La Niña) years have been shown to reduce breeding success (J. Theuerkauf et al. in litt. 2011). A potential new threat may be the introduction of Psittacine Beak and Feather Disease (PBFD) which has been found in Rainbow Lorikeets on New Caledonia (J. Theuerkauf and A. Legault in litt. 2012).


Conservation Actions Underway
Since 2005 the Loro Parque Fundación has been supporting a long-term study on the species's ecology and threats, including installing nest cameras and radio-tracking individuals to determine breeding success and survival (Theuerkauf and Rouys 2005). A study is currently underway to estimate the species's area of occupancy and population size using distance sampling density data, records, and ecological niche modelling (Legault et al. in prep.)
Conservation Actions Proposed
Monitor populations at key sites. Ensure the protection of significant areas of forest to provide suitable trees for nesting. Research the impact of introduced predators. Protect important areas from nickel mining.


References
Anon. 2007. More news on the endemic parakeets of New Caledonia. Cyanopsitta: 4-5.

Anon. 2011. New Caledonia: Parakeets, cats, rats, "El Niño" and "La Niña". Cyanopsitta: 16.

Barré, N.; Dutson, G. 2000. Liste commentée des oiseaux de Nouvelle-Calédonie. Alauda 68: 1-48.

Boon, W. M.; Daugherty, C. H.; Chambers, G. K. 2001. The Norfolk Island Green Parrot and New Caledonian Red-crowned Parakeet are distinct species. Emu 101: 113-121.

Dutson, G. 2011. Birds of Melanesia: Bismarcks, Solomons, Vanuatu and New Caledonia. Christopher Helm, London.

Ekstrom, J. M. M.; Jones, J. P. G.; Willis, J.; Isherwood, I. 2000. The humid forests of New Caledonia: biological research and conservation recommendations for the vertebrate fauna of Grande Terre. CSB Conservation Publications, Cambridge, U.K.

Gula, R., Theuerkauf, J. , Rouys, S. and Legault, A. 2010. An audio/video surveillance system for wildlife. European Journal of Wildlife Research 56: 803-807.

Legault, A., J. Theuerkauf, S. Rouys, V. Chartendrault & N. Barré. 2012. Temporal variation in flock size and habitat use of parrots in New Caledonia. Condor (in press).

Legault, A., V. Chartendrault, J. Theuerkauf, S. Rouys & N. Barré. 2011. Large-scale habitat selection by parrots in New Caledonia. Journal of Ornithology 152: 409-419.

Legault, A., V. Chartendrault, S. Rouys, M. Saoumoé, L. Verfaille, F. Desmoulins, N. Barré, R. Gula & J. Theuerkauf. In prep. Using ecological niche models to infer the distribution and population size of parakeets in New Caledonia.

Pain, D.J.; Martins, T.L.F.; Boussekey, M.; Diaz, S.H.; Downs, C.T.; Ekstrom, J.M.M.; Garnett, S.; Gilardi, J.D.; McNiven, D; Primot, P; Rouys, S; Saoumoe, M; Symes, CT; Tamungang, SA; Theuerkauf, J; Villafuerte, D; Verfailles, L; Widmann, P; Widmann, ID. 2006. Impact of protection on nest take and nesting success of parrots in Africa, Asia and Australasia. Animal Conservation 9: 322-330.

Theuerkauf, J.; Rouys, S. 2005. The parakeets of New Caledonia: ecology, threats and implications for their conservation. Cyanopsitta 78: 19-20.

Theuerkauf, J.; Rouys, S. 2008. Ökologie der gefährdeten Papageien Neukaledoniens. ZGAP Mitteilungen 24(1): 18-20.

Theuerkauf, J.; Rouys, S.; Mériot, J. M.; Gula, R.; Kuehn, R. 2009. Cooperative breeding, mate guarding, and nest sharing in two parrot species of New Caldedonia. Journal of Ornithology 150.

Villard, P.; Barré, N.; de Garine Wichatitsky, M. 2003. Effets de quelques paramètres géographiques sur la présence du Notou Ducula goliath et d'autres espèces d'oiseaux d'intérêt patrimonial en Nouvelle-Calédonie.

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Derhé, M., Dutson, G., Harding, M., Mahood, S., O'Brien, A., Symes, A.

Contributors
Barré, N., Chartendrault, V., Dutson, G., Meresse, C., Theuerkauf, J., Legault, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Cyanoramphus saisseti. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - New Caledonian parakeet (Cyanoramphus saisseti)

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Not Recognised
Family Psittacidae (Parrots)
Species name author Verreaux & Des Murs, 1860