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Uniform Woodcreeper Hylexetastes uniformis
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Based on a model of future deforestation in the Amazon basin, and the species's susceptibility to habitat fragmentation and disturbance, it is suspected that its population will decline rapidly over the next three generations, and it has therefore been uplisted to Vulnerable.

Taxonomic note
Hylexetastes perrotii (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) has been split into H. perrotii and H. uniformis following Ridgely and Tudor (1994), contra SACC (2005), pending the outcome of investigation into the taxonomy of this form by SACC.

25-30 cm. Large, brown woodcreeper. Has a large head, with a short but massive bill. Heavy legs and feet and a short tail. Uniformly brown almost throughout, with occasional barring on the belly. Voice Its song is a loud, ringing series of 2-6 whistles, each around one second long and apparently disyllabic, the first note being usually lower in pitch.

Distribution and population
Hylexetastes uniformis is endemic to south Amazonia, and is generally uncommon to rare. In Brazil, its distribution is bounded by the Amazon River in the north, Rio Madeira in the west, the upper Rio Xingu in the east and south-west Mato Grosso in the south, where it is known to occur rarely near Alta Floresta. Its range extends into north-east Bolivia (del Hoyo et al. 2003).

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is described as poorly known, although probably uncommon to rare (del Hoyo et al. 2003).

Trend justification
This species is suspected to lose 20-24.2% of suitable habitat within its distribution over three generations (14 years) based on a model of Amazonian deforestation (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). Given the susceptibility of the species to fragmentation and/or edge effects, it is therefore suspected to decline by ≥30% over three generations.

This species is mainly found in the "terra firme" forests (with no flooding) of lowland Amazonia, with some also occurring in semi-deciduous woodland in the upper Rio Xingu. It avoids young secondary growth, but does occur in some older secondary habitats. Its diet generally consists of small arthropods, with small vertebrates occasionally taken when available. Breeding is poorly known, probably occurring during the dry season; it has been speculated that only one egg is laid and that the species has a low breeding success (del Hoyo et al. 2003).


The primary threat to this species is accelerating deforestation in the Amazon basin as land is cleared for cattle ranching and soy production, facilitated by expansion of the road network (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). Its intolerance of young secondary habitat makes it particularly susceptible to fragmentation and disturbance, and it has a patchy distribution (del Hoyo et al. 2003, A. Lees in litt. 2011). Proposed changes to the Brazilian Forest Code reduce the percentage of land a private landowner is legally required to maintain as forest (including, critically, a reduction in the width of forest buffers alongside perennial steams) and include an amnesty for landowners who deforested before July 2008 (who would subsequently be absolved of the need to reforest illegally cleared land) (Bird et al. 2011).

Conservation Actions Underway
None is known.

Conservation Actions Proposed

Expand the protected area network to effectively protect IBAs. Effectively resource and manage existing and new protected areas, utilising emerging opportunities to finance protected area management with the joint aims of reducing carbon emissions and maximizing biodiversity conservation. Conservation on private lands, through expanding market pressures for sound land management and preventing forest clearance on lands unsuitable for agriculture, is also essential (Soares-Filho et al. 2006). Campaign against proposed changes to the Brazilian Forest Code that would lead to a decrease in the width of the areas of riverine forest protected as Permanent Preservation Areas (APPs), which function as vital corridors in fragmented landscapes.

Bird, J. P.; Buchanan, J. M.; Lees, A. C.; Clay, R. P.; Develey, P. F.; Yépez, I.; Butchart, S. H. M. 2011. Integrating spatially explicit habitat projections into extinction risk assessments: a reassessment of Amazonian avifauna incorporating projected deforestation. Diversity and Distributions: doi: 10.1111/j.1472-4642.2011.00843.x.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Christie, D. 2003. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 8: Broadbills to Tapaculos. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Ridgely, R. S.; Tudor, G. 1994. The birds of South America. University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas.

Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1993. A supplement to 'Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world'. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

Soares-Filho, B.S.; Nepstad, D.C.; Curran, L.M.; Cerqueira, G.C.; Garcia, R. A.; Ramos, C. A.; Voll, E.; McDonald, A.; Lefebvre, P.; Schlesinger, P. 2006. Modelling conservation in the Amazon basin. Nature 440(7083): 520-523.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Khwaja, N., Symes, A.

Lees, A.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Taylor, J.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Hylexetastes uniformis. Downloaded from on 25/10/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 25/10/2016.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Dendrocolaptidae (Woodcreepers)
Species name author Hellmayr, 1909
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Stable
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 1,070,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species