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NT
Northern Bobwhite Colinus virginianus

IUCN Red List Criteria

Near Threatened (criteria nearly met) A2bc+3bc+4bc 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Near Threatened
2008 Near Threatened
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type continent
Average mass 166 g

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 4,230,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals medium Estimated 2004
Population trend Decreasing medium -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.7 - - -
Population justification: Rich et al. (2004)
Trend justification: This species has undergone a large and statistically significant decrease over the last 40 years in North America (-82.4% decline over 40 years, equating to a -35.2% decline per decade; data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Bahamas Introduced Extant Yes      
Canada Native Extant Yes      
China (mainland) Introduced Extant       Yes
Cuba Native Extant       Yes
Dominican Republic Introduced Extant       Yes
France Introduced Extant       Yes
Guatemala Native Extant Yes      
Haiti Introduced Extant       Yes
Italy Introduced Extant       Yes
Mexico Native Extant Yes      
New Zealand Introduced Extinct       Yes
Portugal Introduced Extant Yes      
Puerto Rico (to USA) Introduced Extant       Yes
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Introduced Extant       Yes
USA Native Extant Yes      
Virgin Islands (to USA) Introduced Extinct Yes      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Cuba Alejandro de Humboldt site factsheet
Cuba Alturas de Banao site factsheet
Cuba Cienaga de Lanier y Sur de la Isla de la Juventud site factsheet
Cuba Ciénaga de Zapata site factsheet
Cuba Delta del Cauto site factsheet
Cuba Delta del Mayarí site factsheet
Cuba Desembarco del Granma site factsheet
Cuba Gibara site factsheet
Cuba Gran Humedal del Norte de Ciego de Ávila site factsheet
Cuba Hatibonico - Baitiquirí - Imías site factsheet
Cuba Humedal Sur de Pinar del Río site factsheet
Cuba Humedal Sur de Sancti Spiritus site factsheet
Cuba La Mensura site factsheet
Cuba Limones - Tuabaquey site factsheet
Cuba Río Máximo site factsheet
Cuba Siboney - Juticí site factsheet
Cuba Sierra del Chorrillo site factsheet
Cuba Sierra del Rosario site factsheet
Cuba Topes de Collantes site factsheet
Haiti Aux Diablotins site factsheet
Mexico Center of Veracruz site factsheet
USA Alligator River Lowlands site factsheet
USA Chino Farms site factsheet
USA Chinook Fish and Wildlife Area and Chinook Mine site factsheet
USA Fort Chaffee site factsheet
USA Goose Pond/Beehunter Marsh Fish and Wildlife Area site factsheet
USA Katy Prairie Conservancy site factsheet
USA Lower Rappahannock River site factsheet
USA Lynnville-Squaw Creek Mine Complex site factsheet
USA Shortleaf Pine-Bluestem Grass Ecosystem Management Area site factsheet
USA Wichita Mountains National Wildlife Refuge site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable resident
Forest Temperate suitable resident
Grassland Temperate suitable resident
Shrubland Temperate suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 2500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching / Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations / Agro-industry plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Colinus virginianus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Odontophoridae (New World quails)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1758)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 4,230,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species