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Blue-bearded Helmetcrest Oxypogon cyanolaemus
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Justification
This newly-split species has not been recorded since 1946 and has not been found on several recent surveys. Extensive burning and overgrazing has severely degraded its high altitude paramo habitat, and any remaining population is inferred to be very small and declining. For these reasons the species has been classified as Critically Endangered, but survey effort has not yet been sufficient for it to be listed as Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct).

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Taxonomic note
Oxypogon guerinii, O. cyanolaemus, O. lindenii and O. stuebelii (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) were previously lumped as O. guerinii following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).

Identification
11.2-12.7cm. Medium-sized hummingbird with prominent crest and elongated throat feathers forming a 'beard'. Crest is mostly white, and obvious white frame for the face extends from the rear of the head, around the ear coverts and down to the breast side. In the centre of the 'beard' are metallic purplish-blue feathers, and the tail has an extensive buff-white area on the outer tail feathers. Similar spp. O. guerinii, O. lindenii, and O. stuebelii were previously lumped with the present species. O. guerinii has a white stripe on the outer retrices including the shafts, and the beard of the male is green. O. lindenii has a longer crest and greatly reduced green feathering in the beard. O. stuebelii differs in having the white areas replaced by a tan colour, a reduced crest and beard and larger whitish area on the outer retrices.

Distribution and population
Oxypogon cyanolaemus is known only from the mountains of the Santa Marta region of northeast Colombia. It is known from at least 62 museum specimens, the most recent taken in 1946, but there appear to have been no confirmed records since then (Collar and Salaman 2013). As long ago as the early 20th century the species was reportedly 'found very sparingly' and it was noted that 'bushes and shrubbery are scarce on this paramo [Paramo de Mamarongo], hence the few birds found there' (Todd and Carriker 1922). Surveys during 1999-2003 (Strewe & Navarro 2004), brief surveys of the southern slope of the massif in February 2007 (N. Krabbe in litt. 2007) and surveys at higher elevations in December 2011 (Luna and Quevedo 2012) all failed to record the species.

Population justification
There have been no confirmed records of the species since 1946, and even in the early 20th century it was reported to be scarce. Recent surveys of the Santa Marta massif have failed to find the species, and any remaining population is therefore presumed to be very small; the population estimate is placed here in the band 50-249 mature individuals.

Trend justification
The species's population is suspected to have declined owing to extensive and severe habitat loss and degradation caused by deforestation, extensive burning and overgrazing, however given the lack of records since 1946 the rate of decline has not been estimated.

Ecology
Assumed to be similar to O. guerinii, though little data relating directly to this taxon. It may depend on Espeletia (frailejón) as one of its most important food sources, and there is only one species of this subshrub known from Santa Marta, Libanothamnus occultus, which has been recorded from subparamo to open slopes at 3,400-4,040 m across the massif (Cleef & Rangel 1984 and Cuatrecasas 2013, in Collar and Salaman 2013).

Threats

The paramo of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta is seriously affected by the grazing of cattle herds belonging to indigenous communities, who repeatedly burn the paramos for pasture (WWF 2013). Indigenous communities collect L.occultus for firewood (Cuatrecasas 2013, in Collar and Salaman 2013), further drastically reducing the population of this frailejón, which is classified as Critically Endangered on the Colombian Red List (García et al. 2005) and which may be a key food source for O. cyanolaemus.

Conservation and research actions in place
The entire range falls within the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta National Park, but this has not prevented intense pressure on the paramo.

Conservation and research actions needed
Search for any remaining populations of the species. Improve the level of habitat protection within Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta National Park. Seek to supply local people with firewood, in order to avoid further habitat destruction. Monitor the extent and condition of habitat. Raise awareness of the species's plight amongst local people. Encourage sustainable livestock and land management practices.

References
Collar, N. J.; Salaman, P. 2013. The taxonomic and conservation status of the Oxypogon helmetcrests. Conservación Colombiana 19: 31-38. Available at: http://www.proaves.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/The-taxonomic-and-conservation-status-of-the-Oxypogon-helmetcrests.pdf

García, N., Calderón Saenz, E. & Galeano, G. A. 2005. Frailejones (subtribu Espeletiinae, familia Asteraceae). Libro rojo de plantas de Colombia Vol II. Palmas, frailejones y zamias, pp. 225–385. Instituto Alexander-von-Humboldt, Santafé de Bogotá DC.

IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 June 2012).

Luna, J. C.; Quevedo, A. 2012. Primera fotografía en su habitat y nuevo avistamiento del Cucarachero de Santa Marta Troglodytes monticola, especie en peligro crítico. Conservacion Colombiana 17: 31-32.

Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Strewe, R.; Navarro, C. 2004. The threatened birds of the río Frío Valley, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. Cotinga 22: 47-55.

Todd, W. E. C.; Carriker, M. A. 1922. The birds of the Santa Marta Region of Colombia: a study in altitudinal distribution. Annals of the Carnegie Museum 14.

WWF. 2013. Northern South America: Northern Colombia. Available at: http://worldwildlife.org/ecoregions/nt1007.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Martin, R, Symes, A. & Taylor, J.

Contributors
Cortes, O.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Oxypogon cyanolaemus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Critically Endangered
Family Trochilidae (Hummingbirds)
Species name author Salvin & Godman, 1880
Population size 50-249 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) -
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species