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Straw-backed Tanager Tangara argyrofenges

Justification

Based on a model of future deforestation it is suspected that the population of this species will decline rapidly over the next three generations, and it has therefore been uplisted to Vulnerable.

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Identification
13cm, 18-20g. Sexually dimorphic small tanager. Male has shining pale yellow-buff (straw-coloured) mantle, breast sides and flanks contrasting with jet black crown, nape, underparts, wings and tail. This black encloses a shiny pale aquamarine to opalescent green side of the head and throat. The female lacks the black areas; the crown and nape are dusky green, the belly and lower underparts are greyish-white, the breast sides bright yellowish green and the mantle and rump dull straw yellow tinged green. The face shows a similar opalescent mask to the male, though less bright. Similar spp. This species forms an apparent species group with Black-capped T. heinei, Silver-backed T. viridicollis and Sira T. phillipsi Tanagers and the females are particularly similar. The males of the other three species lack the straw-coloured mantle, breast sides and flanks of T. argyrofenges. Female T. argyrofenges have a more straw-yellow coloured mantle and rump than the other species and are overall more yellow-green than dull green. Voice Song a high, wheezy series of lisping notes and a long, even "weee". Calls include a descending "tsew".

Distribution and population
East slope of the Andes in extreme SE Ecuador, N and C Peru with a few records in Junin and Pasco and E slope of the Andes in Bolivia. Occurs between 1,100-2700 m altitude (in Peru 1,100-2,200 m; in Ecuador 1,350-1,600 m and in Bolivia 1,200-2,700 m), but is most numerous in Bolivia between 1,600-1,900 m.

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as 'uncommon and patchily distributed' (Stotz et al. 1996).

Trend justification
This species is suspected to lose 35.8-37.7% of suitable habitat within its distribution over three generations (15 years) based on a model of Amazonian deforestation (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). It is therefore suspected to decline by ≥30% over three generations.

Ecology
Found in mid-elevation humid montane forest and forest borders, sometimes in adjacent secondary growth. Pairs forage with mixed-species flocks, especially with other Tangara spp. in mid- or upper levels in trees and usually well hidden. Food is fruit and insects, obtained from leaves, bark and thin branches.

Threats
Projected deforestation is the primary threat affecting this species (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011).

Conservation Actions Underway

None is known.

Conservation Actions Proposed

Expand the protected area network to effectively protect IBAs. Effectively resource and manage existing and new protected areas, utilising emerging opportunities to finance protected area management with the joint aims of reducing carbon emissions and maximizing biodiversity conservation. Conservation on private lands, through expanding market pressures for sound land management and preventing forest clearance on lands unsuitable for agriculture, is also essential (Soares-Filho et al. 2006).

References
Bird, J. P.; Buchanan, J. M.; Lees, A. C.; Clay, R. P.; Develey, P. F.; Yépez, I.; Butchart, S. H. M. 2011. Integrating spatially explicit habitat projections into extinction risk assessments: a reassessment of Amazonian avifauna incorporating projected deforestation. Diversity and Distributions: doi: 10.1111/j.1472-4642.2011.00843.x.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliot, A.; Christie, D. 2011. Handbook of the birds of the world vol. 16: Tanagers to New World Blackbirds. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Soares-Filho, B.S.; Nepstad, D.C.; Curran, L.M.; Cerqueira, G.C.; Garcia, R. A.; Ramos, C. A.; Voll, E.; McDonald, A.; Lefebvre, P.; Schlesinger, P. 2006. Modelling conservation in the Amazon basin. Nature 440(7083): 520-523.

Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Symes, A.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Taylor, J.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Tangara argyrofenges. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/09/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/09/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Thraupidae (Tanagers)
Species name author (Sclater & Salvin, 1876)
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 35,700 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species