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Azure-shouldered Tanager Thraupis cyanoptera

Justification
This species qualifies as Near Threatened as it has a moderately small population which is declining owing to continuing habitat destruction and degradation.

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Distribution and population
Thraupis cyanoptera occurs in south-east Brazil (Espírito Santo and east Minas Gerais south to north Rio Grande do Sul, mostly on the coastal slopes of the Serra do Mar)  (Isler and Isler 1987, Ridgely and Tudor 1989, Parker et al. 1996). Reports from other localities almost certainly refer to Sayaca Tanager T. sayaca (Isler and Isler 1987, Bushell 1995). It is uncommon to fairly common, but local, within this range.

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as 'uncommon' (Stotz et al. 1996).

Trend justification
Slow to moderate population declines are likely to be occurring, owing to on-going habitat loss, although precise data on these trends are lacking.

Ecology
This species is found in the canopy and borders of montane and lowland evergreen forest and second growth at 200-1,200 m, occasionally to 1,600 m (Ridgely and Tudor 1989, Parker et al. 1996).

Threats
Agricultural conversion and deforestation for mining and plantation production are historic threats to its lowland forests (Fearnside 1996). Current key threats are urbanisation, industrialisation, agricultural expansion, colonisation and associated road-building (Dinerstein et al. 1995).

Conservation Actions Underway
Conservation Actions Proposed
Repeat surveys of known sites to monitor population trends and patterns of habitat destruction. Conduct ecological studies to fully determine its habitat preferences and levels of tolerance of secondary habitats. Effectively protect significant areas of suitable forest at key sites.

References
Bushell, C. 1995. Identification of Azure-shouldered Tanager Thraupis cyanoptera. Cotinga: 31-32.

Dinerstein, E.; Olson, D. M.; Graham, D. J.; Webster, A. L.; Primm, S. A.; Bookbinder, M. P.; Ledec, G. 1995. A conservation assesssment of the terrestrial ecoregions of Latin America and the Caribbean. World Bank, Washington, D.C.

Fearnside, P. 1996. Brazil. In: Harcourt, C.S.; Sayer, J.A. (ed.), The conservation atlas of tropical forests: the Americas, pp. 229-248. Simon & Schuster, New York and London.

Isler, M. L.; Isler, P. R. 1987. The tanagers: natural history, distribution, and identification. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.

Parker, T. A.; Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W. 1996. Ecological and distributional databases. In: Stotz, D.F.; Fitzpatrick, J.W.; Parker, T.A.; Moskovits, D.K. (ed.), Neotropical bird ecology and conservation, pp. 113-436. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Ridgely, R. S.; Tudor, G. 1989. The birds of South America. University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas.

Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Butchart, S., Gilroy, J., O'Brien, A., Sharpe, C J

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Thraupis cyanoptera. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/09/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/09/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Azure-shouldered tanager (Thraupis cyanoptera) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Thraupidae (Tanagers)
Species name author (Vieillot, 1817)
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 224,000 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species