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Black-and-white Tanager Conothraupis speculigera

Justification
This species is uncommon or rare throughout its range, and its moderately small populations is likely to be declining owing to habitat loss and degradation. It is therefore considered Near Threatened.

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Distribution and population
Conothraupis speculigera breeds on the west slope of the Andes up to 1,800 m in west Ecuador (south-west Pichincha, Azuay and Loja), and north-west Peru (Piura south to La Libertad), migrating to Amazonia where it is found very locally on the east slope in east Peru (Amazonas, Cajamarca, San Martín, Loreto, Ucayali and Madre de Dios) (Isler and Isler 1987, Ridgely and Tudor 1989). It is rare to uncommon throughout its range.

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as 'uncommon and patchily distributed' (Stotz et al. 1996).

Trend justification
This species is suspected to lose 10.6-10.7% of suitable habitat within its distribution over three generations (11 years) based on a model of Amazonian deforestation (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). It is therefore suspected to decline by <25% over three generations.

Ecology
This species breeds during February-May in deciduous woodland, gallery forest and riparian thickets up to 1,950 m west of the Andes (Parker et al. 1996, Ridgely and Greenfield 2001, Schulenberg et al. 2007), with its occurrence in north-west Peru dependent on whether sufficient rain has fallen for vegetation to develop (O'Neill 1966). After breeding it migrates to Amazonia where it is found in forest-edge, second growth and river-edge forest from June to September (Schulenberg et al. 2007).

Threats
It is threatened by deforestation and understorey degradation (Stattersfield et al. 1998), which may be further isolating populations within its already disjunct range.

Conservation Actions Underway
Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct repeated surveys to determine seasonal movements, with a particular focus on identifying whether breeding populations occur on the east slope of the Andes. Conduct studies to identify precise habitat requirements and responses to habitat degradation or fragmentation. Protect areas of suitable habitat (in addition to the private reserves the species probably occurs in).

References
Clements, J. F. 1998. Report on a birding trip to the southern Andes of Peru.

Isler, M. L.; Isler, P. R. 1987. The tanagers: natural history, distribution, and identification. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.

O'Neill, J. P. 1966. Notes on the distribution of Conothraupis speculigera. Condor 68: 598-600.

Parker, T. A.; Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W. 1996. Ecological and distributional databases. In: Stotz, D.F.; Fitzpatrick, J.W.; Parker, T.A.; Moskovits, D.K. (ed.), Neotropical bird ecology and conservation, pp. 113-436. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Ridgely, R. S.; Greenfield, P. J. 2001. The birds of Ecuador: status, distribution and taxonomy. Cornell University Press and Christopher Helm, Ithaca and London.

Ridgely, R. S.; Tudor, G. 1989. The birds of South America. University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas.

Schulenberg, T. S.; Stotz, D. F. ; Lane, D. F.; O'Neill, J. P.; Parker III, T. A. 2007. Birds of Peru. Prnceton University Press, Prnceton, NJ, USA.

Stattersfield, A. J.; Crosby, M. J.; Long, A. J.; Wege, D. C. 1998. Endemic bird areas of the world: priorities for bird conservation. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Butchart, S., Gilroy, J., O'Brien, A., Sharpe, C J

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Conothraupis speculigera. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/11/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/11/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Black-and-white tanager (Conothraupis speculigera) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Thraupidae (Tanagers)
Species name author (Gould, 1855)
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 47,800 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species