This species is listed as Vulnerable because it has a very small range and, were data to show that it is declining in population or range, it would be uplisted to Endangered.
AOU. 1998. Check-list of North American birds. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
12.5 cm. A black-and-white warbler. Similar spp. Wintering Black-and-white Warbler Mniotilta varia, but distinguished by lack of broad white crown-stripe, and behaviour: D. angelae gleans from leaves and twigs whereas M. varia creeps along trunks and limbs of trees. Voice Song is a series of short, rapid notes ending with slightly lower series of double notes. Contact call similar to first part of song. Seldom gives short, metallic chip. Hints Hyperactive, accompanies mixed flocks.
Conservation Actions Underway
Both known areas area protected, and the species is probably secure as long as suitable habitat is maintained in these reserves (Cruz and Delannoy 1984). In July 2011 Sociedad Ornitológica Puertorriqueña (SOPI), in collaboration with BirdLife, started a project which aims to carry out surveys for the bird in the Carite Commonwealth Forest and surrounding, privately-owned, potential habitat to determine the presence of a potential third population (V. Anadon in litt. 2012).
AnadÃ³n-Irizarry, V. 2006. Distribution, habitat occupancy and population density of the Elfin-woods Warbler (Dendroica angelae) in Puerto Rico. Thesis. MSc (Biology), University of Puerto Rico, MayagÃ¼ez.
Cruz, A.; Delannoy, C. A. 1984. Ecology of the Elfin Woods Warbler Dendroica angelae, I. Distribution, habitat usage and population densities. Caribbean Journal of Science 20: 89-96.
Curson, J.; Quinn, D.; Beadle, D. 1994. New World warblers. A&C Black/Christopher Helm, London.
Delannoy, C. A. 2006. Distribution, abundance and description of habitats of the Elfin Woods Warbler, Dendroica angelae, in southwestern Puerto Rico. Technical Report to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
Raffaele, H. A. 1983. A guide to the birds of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Fondo Educativo Interamericano, San Juan.
Raffaele, H.; Wiley, J.; Garrido, O.; Keith, A.; Raffaele, J. 1998. Birds of the West Indies. Christopher Helm, London.
Rodriguez-Mojica, R. 2004. First report of cavity-nesting in Elfin-woods Warbler Dendroica angelae at Maricao State Forest, Puerto Rico. Cotinga 22: 21-23.
Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species
Text account compilers
Isherwood, I., Mahood, S., Pople, R., Sharpe, C J, Wege, D.
Rodriguez, R., Anadón, V., Delannoy, C., Colón-Merced, R.
IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.
BirdLife International (2015) Species factsheet: Dendroica angelae. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/05/2015. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2015) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/05/2015.
This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.
To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife
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Additional resources for this species
|Current IUCN Red List category||Vulnerable|
|Family||Parulidae (New World warblers)|
|Species name author||Kepler & Parkes, 1972|
|Population size||1800 mature individuals|
|Distribution size (breeding/resident)||31 km2|
|Links to further information|
|- Additional Information on this species|