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Cinderella Waxbill Estrilda thomensis

Justification
This species has been downlisted from Near Threatened because its range is estimated to be larger than previously thought. It is now listed as Least Concern on the basis that it is not thought to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under any of the Red List criteria.

Taxonomic source(s)
Dowsett, R. J.; Forbes-Watson, A. D. 1993. Checklist of birds of the Afrotropical and Malagasy regions. Tauraco Press, Li
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

Distribution and population
Estrilda thomensis was originally described in error as being from the island of São Tomé but is in fact restricted to south-western Angola (Namibe Province, north and east to south-western Huila Province and north to Fazenda do Cuito in Huambo) (Dean 2000) and extreme north-western Namibia (up to 50 km from the lower Cunene or Kunene River) (Harrison et al. 1997, C. Hines in litt. 2005). Overall, it has a large Extent of Occurrence of 95,400 km2. It is rare in Namibia, probably numbering fewer than 2,000 birds in total (Simmons and Brown 2006).

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is described as locally common (Clement et al. 1999).

Trend justification
The species's population is assumed to be in decline, owing to the declining extent and quality of its habitat.

Ecology
In Angola, it is locally common to frequent in thornbush, scrub, open mopane woodland and riverine Acacia woodland from 200-500 m (Clement et al. 1993, Dean 2000). In Namibia, it is restricted to mopane and riverine woodlands of the Cunene River system and its drainages, being rare in Acacia woodland (Fry and Keith 2004). It is apparently resident in Angola, but subject to substantial local movements in Namibia after rain. It feeds on grass seeds and other small seeds, flowers, insects and possibly nectar. Nest-building in Namibia has been noted in late November to December, after the first rains. Its nest in captivity has been described as a large ball of grass and coconut fibres with a narrow, down-sloping entrance tube. Two clutches of 3-4 eggs may be laid. The incubation period is 12.5-14 days, followed by a fledging period of 17-21 days (Fry and Keith 2004).

Threats
The species's habitat is generally threatened by habitat degradation caused by overgrazing and trampling by cattle and goats (C. Hines in litt. 2005, Simmons and Brown 2006), and clearance (often using fire) for subsistence agriculture. More pastoral agriculturalists are likely to be attracted by the permanent water that the proposed dam would produce (Simmons and Brown 2006). Increases in human inhabitation at springs and small tributaries south of Cunene River, with associated wood-cutting, over-grazing and over-utilisation of water, is seen by some as a greater threat than direct habitat destruction by the dam (Fry and Keith 2004). The proposed development of a hydroelectric plant on the Cunene River at Epupa Falls threatened the species's survival in Namibia; covering around half of the species's habitat in the country and - by altering river dynamics - probably changing insect biodiversity relied on by the species during feeding of young (Harrison et al. 1997, Simmons and Brown 2006). The project would also have removed habitat on the Angolan side (R. Simmons in litt. 1999). Opposition to development at this site resulted the original proposal being abandoned in 2008 and led to a new proposal to dam the river c40km downstream of Epupa Falls at Baynes, which was also opposed by local people and was still undergoing consultation in late 2011 (Anon 2011).

Conservation Actions Underway
In Angola the species occurs in Iona National Park and possibly also Chimalavera Regional Nature Park, as well as in proposed protected areas at Chongoroi and Tundavala (Dean 2001). Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct surveys to obtain an estimate of the population size and locate nesting areas (Simmons and Brown 2006). Study the species's breeding ecology (Simmons and Brown 2006). Monitor population trends through regular surveys. Monitor rates of habitat loss and degradation within its range. Assess the impact on the species of the proposed hydroelectric dam. Lobby for the proposed hydroelectric development to be abandoned, and harness local support in the process.

References
Anon. 2011. Namibia: Epupa People Say No to Baynes Dam. allAfrica.com.

Clement, P.; Harris, A.; Davis, J. 1993. Finches and sparrows: an identification guide. Christopher Helm, London.

Clement, P.; Harris, A.; Davis, J. 1999. Finches and sparrows. Christopher Helm, London.

Dean, W. R. J. 2000. The birds of Angola. British Ornithologists' Union, Tring, UK.

Dean, W. R. J. 2001. Angola. In: Fishpool, L.D.C.; Evans, M.I. (ed.), Important Bird Areas in Africa and associated islands: Priority sites for conservation, pp. 71-91. Pisces Publications and BirdLife International (BirdLife International Conservation Series No.11), Newbury and Cambridge, UK.

Fry, C. H.; Keith, S. 2004. The birds of Africa vol. VII. Christopher Helm, London.

Harrison, J. A.; Allan, D. G.; Underhill, L. G.; Herremans, M.; Tree, A. J.; Parker, V.; Brown, C. J. 1997. The atlas of southern African birds. BirdLife South Africa, Johannesburg.

IUCN. 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2013.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 13 November 2013).

Simmons, R.E.; Brown, C.J. 2006. Birds to watch in Namibia: red, rare and endemic species. National Biodiversity Programme, Windhoek.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
O'Brien, A., Pilgrim, J., Robertson, P., Symes, A. & Taylor, J.

Contributors
Hines, C. & Simmons, R.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Estrilda thomensis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/09/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/09/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Estrildidae (Waxbills, grass finches, munias and allies)
Species name author Sousa, 1888
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 87,600 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species
- Projected distributions under climate change