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Cameroon Montane Greenbul Andropadus montanus

Justification
This species is listed as Near Threatened because it is suspected to undergo a moderately rapid population decline over the next three generations owing to expected rates of habitat loss.

Taxonomic source(s)
Dowsett, R. J.; Forbes-Watson, A. D. 1993. Checklist of birds of the Afrotropical and Malagasy regions. Tauraco Press, Li
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

Distribution and population
Andropadus montanus is endemic to the highlands of western Cameroon and the Obudu plateau and Mt Gangirwal in eastern Nigeria. In Nigeria, it is reportedly still relatively common (P. Hall in litt. 1999). In Cameroon, it is reportedly not uncommon on Mt Oku (F. Maisels in litt. 1998), scarce on Mt Cameroon (Stuart 1986), locally common in the Rumpi Hills, common in the Bakossi Mountains (Dowsett-Lemaire and Dowsett 1998) and very common on Mt Manenguba, and has recently been found on nearby Mt Nlonako (Dowsett-Lemaire and Dowsett 1999).

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is described as variously scarce to common in different parts of its range (del Hoyo et al. 2005).

Trend justification
The population is inferred to be in decline owing to on-going habitat loss and degradation (del Hoyo et al. 2005) and is suspected to undergo a moderately rapid decline over the next three generations owing to expected levels of habitat change as oil-palm cultivation increases in its range (F. Dowsett-Lemaire in litt. 2013).

Ecology
It inhabits forest edge, clearings, secondary habitat and scrubby thickets with fruits (Stuart 1986, Bowden 1998, Dowsett-Lemaire and Dowsett 1999). On Mt Manenguba, it is especially common in scrubby Maesa forest and on Mt Nlonako in thickets of fruiting Harungana on rocks (Dowsett-Lemaire and Dowsett 1999). It occurs mainly at 1,000-2,500 m, but is recorded from 500 m on the slopes of Mt Cameroon in the non-breeding season (del Hoyo et al. 2005). It feeds on fruit, seeds and insects, foraging generally low in dense shrub layers, but occasionally up to 10 m. In Cameroon, nesting has been recorded in March and May, with birds in breeding condition noted in January-February and November, and juveniles recorded in February-April. The species is probably largely resident, although there is evidence of some seasonal movements to lower altitudes during the non-breeding season (del Hoyo et al. 2005).

Threats
Although this species is found in secondary habitats and is apparently still common where it occurs, forest within its small range is threatened by exploitation for timber and firewood and agricultural encroachment (Stattersfield et al. 1998). The montane and semi-montane forests of western Cameroon are under increasing pressure from clearance for gardens (e.g. on Mt Kupe), and in more recent years for establishing vast oil-palm plantations, leading to the encroachment of the Bakossi block of forest (F. Dowsett-Lemaire in litt. 2013).

Conservation Actions Underway
It occurs in Gashaka-Gumti Reserve in Nigeria, and in Banyang Mbo Wildlife Sanctuary, and Rumpi Hills and Bali-Ngemba Forest Reserves in Cameroon (del Hoyo et al. 2005). Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct surveys to obtain a total population estimate. Monitor population trends through regular surveys. Monitor rates of habitat loss and degradation. Increase the area of suitable habitat that is protected. Encourage alternative income sources such as ecotourism.

References
Bowden, C. G. R. 1998. The birds of Mount Kupe, Southwest Cameroon.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Christie, D. 2005. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 10: Cuckoo-shrikes to Thrushes. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Dowsett-Lemaire, F.; Dowsett, R. J. 1998. Surveys of Oku Mt and other IBAs in NW Province (Cameroon), February-March 1998.

Dowsett-Lemaire, F.; Dowsett, R. J. 1999. Survey of birds and amphibians on Mt Manenguba, Mt Nlonako, north Bakossi and around Kupe in 1988-99.

IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 June 2012).

Stattersfield, A. J.; Crosby, M. J.; Long, A. J.; Wege, D. C. 1998. Endemic bird areas of the world: priorities for bird conservation. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Stuart, S. N. 1986. Conservation of Cameroon montane forests. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

View photos and videos and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
O'Brien, A., Robertson, P., Symes, A. & Taylor, J.

Contributors
Dowsett-Lemaire, F., Hall, P. & Maisels, F.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Andropadus montanus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Cameroon montane greenbul (Andropadus montanus) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Pycnonotidae (Bulbuls)
Species name author Reichenow, 1892
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) -
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species
- Projected distributions under climate change