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Straw-headed Bulbul Pycnonotus zeylanicus
BirdLife is updating this factsheet for the 2016 Red List
Please email us with any relevant information

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Vulnerable A2cd+3cd+4cd 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Vulnerable
2008 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Near Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type continent
shelf island
Average mass -


  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 672,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 10000-19999 poor Estimated 2000
Population trend Decreasing poor -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulation 1001-10000 - - -
Population justification: The population size is preliminarily estimated to fall into the band 10,000-19,999 mature individuals. This equates to 15,000-29,999 individuals in total, rounded here to 15,000-30,000 individuals.
Trend justification: Persecution for the pet trade and habitat destruction continue to threaten populations across the species's range, and these factors are suspected to be driving a rapid and on-going decline.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Brunei Native Extant       Yes
Indonesia Native Extant       Yes
Malaysia Native Extant       Yes
Myanmar Native Extant       Yes
Singapore Native Extant Yes      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Brunei Belait Swamp Forest site factsheet
Brunei Seria Coast site factsheet
Brunei Southern Ladan Hills site factsheet
Brunei Ulu Temburong site factsheet
Brunei Wasan site factsheet
Indonesia Betung Kerihun site factsheet
Indonesia Bukit Baka-Bukit Raya site factsheet
Indonesia Bukit Baling site factsheet
Indonesia Cikepuh site factsheet
Indonesia Danau Sentarum site factsheet
Indonesia Gunung Leuser site factsheet
Indonesia Gunung Singgalang site factsheet
Indonesia Kayan Mentarang site factsheet
Indonesia Kutai site factsheet
Indonesia Muara Kendawangan site factsheet
Indonesia Ujung Kulon site factsheet
Indonesia Ulu Barito site factsheet
Indonesia Way Kambas site factsheet
Malaysia Bako-Buntal Bay site factsheet
Malaysia Bau Limestone site factsheet
Malaysia Belum-Temenggor site factsheet
Malaysia Bintang Range site factsheet
Malaysia Central Titiwangsa Range site factsheet
Malaysia Crocker Range site factsheet
Malaysia Danum Valley Conservation Area site factsheet
Malaysia Danum-Linau site factsheet
Malaysia Dulit Range site factsheet
Malaysia Endau-Rompin site factsheet
Malaysia Gunung Pueh site factsheet
Malaysia Hulu Gombak-Sungai Lalang forest site factsheet
Malaysia Kabili-Sepilok site factsheet
Malaysia Kelabit Highlands site factsheet
Malaysia Kinabatangan floodplain site factsheet
Malaysia Kledang Range site factsheet
Malaysia Klias peninsula site factsheet
Malaysia Krau Wildlife Reserve site factsheet
Malaysia Lambir Hills National Park site factsheet
Malaysia Lanjak Entimau Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
Malaysia Loagan Bunut National Park site factsheet
Malaysia Maliau Basin Conservation Area site factsheet
Malaysia Mount Kinabalu site factsheet
Malaysia Mulu - Buda Protected Area site factsheet
Malaysia Niah National Park site factsheet
Malaysia Panti forest site factsheet
Malaysia South-East Pahang peat swamp forest site factsheet
Malaysia South-west Johor coast site factsheet
Malaysia Taman Negara National Park site factsheet
Malaysia Tanjung Datu-Samunsam Protected Area site factsheet
Malaysia Trus Madi Range site factsheet
Malaysia Ulu Muda site factsheet
Myanmar Lenya site factsheet
Singapore Central Forest site factsheet
Singapore Ubin-Khatib site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land marginal resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations marginal resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level marginal resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland suitable resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Moist suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) major resident
Altitude 0 - 1600 m Occasional altitudinal limits (max) 1800 m

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching / Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Past Impact
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Past Impact
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion


Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Pycnonotus zeylanicus. Downloaded from on 22/10/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 22/10/2016.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Pycnonotidae (Bulbuls)
Species name author (Gmelin, 1789)
Population size 10000-19999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 672,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species