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LC
Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass 20.36 g

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 43,400,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 43,400,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.9 - - -
Population justification: The global population is estimated to number > c.190,000,000 individuals (Rich et al. 2004), while national population estimates include: c.10,000-1 million breeding pairs and > c.1,000 individuals on migration in China; c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs, > c.10,000 individuals on migration and < c.50 wintering individuals in Taiwan; c.10,000-1 million breeding pairs and > c.1,000 individuals on migration in Korea; c.10,000-1 million breeding pairs, > c.1,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: This species has undergone a small or statistically insignificant decrease over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007). In Europe, trends since 1980 have been stable, based on provisional data for 21 countries from the Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme (EBCC/RSPB/BirdLife/Statistics Netherlands; P. Vorisek in litt. 2008).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Afghanistan Native Extant Yes      
Albania Native Extant Yes      
Algeria Native Extant        
Andorra Native Extant Yes      
Angola Native Extant        
Anguilla (to UK) Native Extant        
Antarctica Vagrant Extant        
Antigua and Barbuda Native Extant        
Argentina Native Extant        
Armenia Native Extant Yes      
Aruba (to Netherlands) Native Extant        
Australia Native Extant        
Austria Native Extant Yes      
Azerbaijan Native Extant Yes      
Bahamas Native Extant        
Bahrain Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Bangladesh Native Extant        
Barbados Native Extant        
Belarus Native Extant Yes      
Belgium Native Extant Yes      
Belize Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Benin Native Extant        
Bermuda (to UK) Native Extant        
Bhutan Native Extant Yes      
Bolivia Native Extant        
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Native Extant        
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant Yes      
Botswana Native Extant        
Brazil Native Extant        
British Indian Ocean Territory Native Extant        
Brunei Native Extant        
Bulgaria Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Burkina Faso Native Extant        
Burundi Native Extant        
Cambodia Native Extant        
Cameroon Native Extant        
Canada Native Extant     Yes  
Cape Verde Native Extant        
Cayman Islands (to UK) Native Extant        
Central African Republic Native Extant        
Chad Native Extant        
Chile Native Extant        
China (mainland) Native Extant Yes      
Christmas Island (to Australia) Native Extant        
Cocos (Keeling) Islands (to Australia) Vagrant Extant        
Colombia Native Extant        
Comoros Native Extant        
Congo Native Extant        
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Native Extant        
Costa Rica Native Extant   Yes    
Côte d'Ivoire Native Extant        
Croatia Native Extant Yes      
Cuba Native Extant        
Curaçao (to Netherlands) Native Extant        
Cyprus Native Extant Yes      
Czech Republic Native Extant Yes      
Denmark Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Djibouti Native Extant        
Dominica Native Extant        
Dominican Republic Native Extant        
Ecuador Native Extant        
Egypt Native Extant        
El Salvador Native Extant        
Equatorial Guinea Native Extant        
Eritrea Native Extant        
Estonia Native Extant Yes      
Ethiopia Native Extant        
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Native Extant        
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Native Extant Yes      
Finland Native Extant Yes   Yes  
France Native Extant Yes   Yes  
French Guiana Native Extant        
Gabon Native Extant        
Gambia Native Extant        
Georgia Native Extant Yes      
Germany Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Ghana Native Extant        
Gibraltar (to UK) Native Extant Yes      
Greece Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Greenland (to Denmark) Vagrant Extant        
Grenada Native Extant        
Guadeloupe (to France) Native Extant     Yes  
Guam (to USA) Native Extant   Yes    
Guatemala Native Extant        
Guinea Native Extant        
Guinea-Bissau Native Extant        
Guyana Native Extant        
Haiti Native Extant        
Honduras Native Extant        
Hong Kong (China) Native Extant        
Hungary Native Extant Yes      
Iceland Native Extant Yes      
India Native Extant Yes      
Indonesia Native Extant        
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant     Yes Yes
Iraq Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Ireland Native Extant Yes      
Israel Native Extant Yes      
Italy Native Extant     Yes Yes
Jamaica Native Extant   Yes    
Japan Native Extant Yes      
Jordan Native Extant     Yes Yes
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes      
Kenya Native Extant        
Kuwait Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant Yes      
Laos Native Extant        
Latvia Native Extant Yes      
Lebanon Native Extant     Yes Yes
Lesotho Native Extant        
Liberia Native Extant        
Libya Native Extant        
Liechtenstein Native Extant Yes      
Lithuania Native Extant Yes      
Luxembourg Native Extant Yes      
Macao (China) Native Extant        
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant Yes      
Madagascar Native Extant        
Malawi Native Extant        
Malaysia Native Extant        
Maldives Native Extant        
Mali Native Extant        
Malta Native Extant Yes      
Marshall Islands Native Extant   Yes    
Martinique (to France) Native Extant        
Mauritania Native Extant        
Mayotte (to France) Native Extant        
Mexico Native Extant        
Micronesia, Federated States of Native Extant   Yes    
Moldova Native Extant Yes      
Mongolia Native Extant Yes      
Montenegro Native Extant Yes      
Montserrat (to UK) Native Extant        
Morocco Native Extant        
Mozambique Native Extant        
Myanmar Native Extant        
Namibia Native Extant        
Nepal Native Extant Yes      
Netherlands Native Extant Yes      
Nicaragua Native Extant     Yes  
Niger Native Extant        
Nigeria Native Extant        
North Korea Native Extant Yes      
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) Native Extant   Yes    
Norway Native Extant Yes      
Oman Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Pakistan Native Extant Yes      
Palau Native Extant   Yes    
Palestinian Authority Territories Native Extant     Yes  
Panama Native Extant        
Paraguay Native Extant        
Peru Native Extant        
Philippines Native Extant        
Poland Native Extant Yes      
Portugal Native Extant       Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) Native Extant        
Qatar Native Extant     Yes  
Romania Native Extant Yes      
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes      
Rwanda Native Extant        
São Tomé e Príncipe Native Extant        
Saudi Arabia Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Senegal Native Extant        
Serbia Native Extant Yes      
Seychelles Native Extant        
Sierra Leone Native Extant        
Singapore Native Extant        
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) Native Extant        
Slovakia Native Extant Yes      
Slovenia Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Somalia Native Extant        
South Africa Native Extant        
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands Native Extant        
South Korea Native Extant Yes      
South Sudan Native Extant     Yes  
Spain Native Extant     Yes Yes
Sri Lanka Native Extant        
St Helena (to UK) Vagrant Extant        
St Kitts and Nevis Native Extant        
St Lucia Native Extant        
St Martin (to France) Native Extant     Yes  
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) Native Extant Yes   Yes  
St Vincent and the Grenadines Native Extant        
Sudan Native Extant        
Suriname Native Extant        
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Vagrant Extant        
Swaziland Native Extant        
Sweden Native Extant Yes      
Switzerland Native Extant Yes      
Syria Native Extant     Yes Yes
Taiwan (China) Native Extant Yes      
Tajikistan Native Extant Yes      
Tanzania Native Extant        
Thailand Native Extant        
Timor-Leste Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Togo Native Extant        
Trinidad and Tobago Native Extant        
Tunisia Native Extant        
Turkey Native Extant Yes      
Turkmenistan Native Extant Yes      
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Native Extant        
Uganda Native Extant        
Ukraine Native Extant Yes   Yes  
United Arab Emirates Native Extant   Yes Yes  
United Kingdom Native Extant Yes      
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Native Extant     Yes  
Uruguay Native Extant   Yes    
USA Native Extant Yes      
Uzbekistan Native Extant Yes      
Venezuela Native Extant        
Vietnam Native Extant Yes      
Virgin Islands (to UK) Native Extant   Yes    
Virgin Islands (to USA) Native Extant   Yes    
Western Sahara Native Extant        
Yemen Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Zambia Native Extant        
Zimbabwe Native Extant        

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Botswana Okavango Delta site factsheet
Czech Republic Krivoklatsko (Krivoklatsko region) site factsheet
Nigeria Ebok-Kabaken site factsheet
South Africa La Mercy and Mount Moreland site factsheet
Spain Mountains of Barcelona site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Canals and Drainage Channels, Ditches suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Savanna Dry suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 3000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Hirundo rustica. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/09/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/09/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Hirundinidae (Swallows and martins)
Species name author Linnaeus, 1758
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 43,400,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species