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East Coast Akalat Sheppardia gunningi

Justification
This species has a moderately small population which is thought to be declining in parts of its range, and is therefore classified as Near Threatened.

Taxonomic source(s)
Dowsett, R. J.; Forbes-Watson, A. D. 1993. Checklist of birds of the Afrotropical and Malagasy regions. Tauraco Press, Li
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

Identification
11-12 cm. Small robin of forest. Brown upperparts. Powder-blue wash across wing-coverts. Small white loral spot. Orangish throat and breast, fading to white on belly and flanks. Similar spp. White-starred Robin Pogonocichla stellata is yellow below, with dark blue head. Voice Alarm call a series of piping seep notes. Song is fast, high-pitched, but not loud, composed of several short phrases, frequently repeated. Hints Easily seen in Arabuko-Sokoke Forest on Kenya coast, in forest patches on north-east shore of Lake Malawi, and in patches of coastal forest in Mozambique north of Beira.

Distribution and population
Sheppardia gunningi occurs as four subspecies in scattered forests in south-east Kenya (Nemeth 1996, Bennun and Njoroge 1999, Matiku et al. 1999, Nemeth and Bennun 1999, Oyugi and Amutete 1999), eastern Tanzania (Evans 1997b, Archer and Iles 1998, N. Baker in litt. 1999, Seddon et al. 1999a, Mlingwa et al. in press), northern Malawi (Dowsett-Lemaire 1989) and Mozambique (Clancey 1996). The area of occupied suitable habitat may total less than 1,000 km2, given that it totals c.470 km2 outside Mozambique. At least 7,500 pairs occur in Arabuko-Sokoke Forest (Kenya) alone (Nemeth 1996, Matiku et al. 1999, Nemeth and Bennun 1999). This population appears to be stable (C. Jackson in litt. 2006, P. Matiku in litt. 2006) and recent records of juveniles (possible dispersers) outside the principal forest block suggest it may be near carrying capacity. The population at Chinizuia in Mozambique may have been extirpated through deforestation (C. Spottiswoode in litt. 2006). A new population has recently been discovered at Mt Mabu in Mozambique (C. Spottiswoode in litt. 2006). In Tanzania the species is under severe pressure: the largest population is thought to occur in Ruvu South Forest Reserve; a long isolated population in the Nguu Mts is small and under pressure; the population in Jozani forest on Zanzibar occupies a tiny habitat; a population discovered in Nyumburuni Forest Reserve in 2003 was under severe pressure at the time of discovery despite an IUCN programme in Rufiji District, and a plantation of Mvule on the Rondo Plateau which supports a healthy population of akalats was under threat of being clear felled (N. Baker and E. Baker in litt. 2007).

Population justification
Arabuko-Sokoke Forest in Kenya is believed to support c.7,500 pairs or around 15,000 mature individuals. Other subpopulations in Tanzania, Malawi and Mozambique are not thought to be large, hence the global population is best treated as moderately small, at 10,000-19,999 mature individuals. This equates to 15,000-29,999 individuals in total.

Trend justification
The population is suspected to be in decline owing to ongoing habitat destruction and predation by introduced species.

Ecology
It inhabits closed, moist forest in the Tanzanian mountains (Evans 1997b, Seddon et al. 1999a), lowland and mid-altitude humid forest in Malawi (Dowsett-Lemaire 1989, F. Dowsett-Lemaire and R. J. Dowsett in litt. 1999, in litt. 2000), and tracts of mixed woodland and open, dry forest in coastal / lowland areas (Nemeth 1996). In Kenya, it is not found in degraded forest (L. Bennun in litt. 1999), but in Tanzania and Malawi it can also be found in secondary forest (Dowsett-Lemaire 1989, Nemeth 1996, Evans 1997b, N. Baker in litt. 1999), although it is generally restricted to the forest interior (N. Baker and E. Baker in litt. 2007), where males retain year round territories. In Tanzania it largely inhabits coastal forests below 300 m, apart from a montane subspecies in the Nguu Mts (Fjeldså et al. 2000). The birds discovered at Mt Mabu, Mozambique, were found at 530 m in tea forest (Spottiswoode et al. 2008). The species mainly feeds on insects, but has also been observed to take berries and seeds (Fjeldså et al. 2000). Birds typically require dense cover, which they retreat into and use to conceal the nest (N. Baker and E. Baker in litt. 2007). In Mozambique, a pair in breeding condition were found in December (Spottiswoode et al. 2008).


Threats
In coastal forests, extraction of timber and deadwood and clearance for agriculture are major and increasing threats (L. Bennun in litt. 1999), while elephant damage is a threat in the Shimba Hills, Kenya (N. Baker in litt. 1999). Lowland sites in Malawi are under increasing human pressure (T. Oatley in litt. 1999, F. Dowsett-Lemaire and R. J. Dowsett in litt. 1999, 2000). Forest within its range in Mozambique is also under severe and increasing pressure from the expanding human population (T. Oatley in litt. 1999). The population at Chinizuia in Mozambique may have been extirpated following forest clearance (C. Spottiswoode in litt. 2006). Elsewhere, habitat at Mt Mabu is being encroached for maize cultivation. If commercial tea production resumed in this area, which would necessitate cropping of existing tea trees, this could also reduce the species's available habitat (Spottiswoode et al. 2008). Where joint forest management allows deadwood collection people typically target the deadwood thickets that this species relies upon for nesting (N. Baker and E. Baker in litt. 2007).

Conservation Actions Underway
Several Tanzanian sites are forest reserves (M. Msuha verbally 1998, N. Baker in litt. 1999). Projects in the east Usambaras are working to increase the amount of forest in protected areas. In Kenya, the Shimba Hills is a national reserve, and in Arabuko-Sokoke an ongoing project aims to promote sustainable forest management (Matiku et al. 1999). In Malawi, remaining forest on the lakeshore plain is mainly in four small forest reserves, while escarpment forest, although not protected, is in a largely uninhabited area (F. Dowsett-Lemaire and R. J. Dowsett in litt. 1999, in litt. 2000). Some forest sites are protected by virtue of their remoteness or water catchment value (Fjeldså et al. 2000). Conservation Actions Proposed
Help the Malawi Forest Department with the conservation of established reserves on the lakeshore (M. Dyer in litt. 1999, F. Dowsett-Lemaire and R. J. Dowsett in litt. 1999, in litt. 2000). Enforce legislation controlling forest-use in both Arabuko-Sokoke and the east Usambaras. Increase protection for Tanzanian coastal forests. Investigate its responses to habitat alteration (L. Bennun in litt. 1999). Assess the population size and trend in the Nguu Mts (Seddon et al. 1999a). Conduct surveys in southern Tanzania and Mozambique (M. Dyer in litt. 1999, T. Oatley in litt. 1999).

References
Archer, A. L.; Iles, D. B. 1998. New bird records for Unguja (Zanzibar island). Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 118: 166-172.

Bennun, L.; Njoroge, P. 1999. Important Bird Areas in Kenya. Nature Kenya, Nairobi.

Clancey, P. A. 1996. The birds of southern Mozambique. African Bird Book Publishing, Westville, Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa.

Dowsett-Lemaire, F. 1989. Ecological and biogeographical aspects of forest bird communities in Malawi. Scopus 13: 1-80.

Evans, T. D. 1997. Records of birds from the forests of the East Usambara lowlands, Tanzania, August 1994 - February 1995. Scopus 19: 92-108.

Fjeldsa, J.; Roy, M. S.; Kiure, J. 2000. A new montane subspecies of Sheppardia gunningi (East-coast Akalat) from Tanzania. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 120: 27-33.

Matiku, P. M.; Bennun, L. A.; Nemeth, E. 1999. Distribution and population size of the threatened East Coast Akalat in Arabuko-Sokoke Forest, Kenya. Ostrich 71: 282-285.

Mlingwa, C. O. F.; Waiyaki, E. M.; Bennun, L. A.; Burgess, N. D. 2000. Birds. In: Burgess, N.D.; Clarke, G.P. (ed.), Coastal forests of Eastern Africa, pp. 149-171. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Nemeth, E. 1996. Distribution, habitat selection and behaviour of the East Coast Akalat Sheppardia gunningi.

Nemeth, E.; Bennun, L. 2000. Distribution, habitat selection and behaviour of the East Coast Akalat Sheppardia gunningi sokokensis in Kenya and Tanzania. Bird Conservation International 10: 115-130.

Oyugi, J.; Amutete, A. 1999. Avifauna of the lower Tana River forests: a preliminary survey. Research Reports of the Centre for Biodiversity, National Museums of Kenya: Ornithology 35.

Seddon, N.; Ekstrom, J. M. M.; Capper, D. R.; Isherwood, I. S.; Muna, R.; Pople, R. G.; Tarimo, E.; Timothy, J. 1999. Notes on the ecology and conservation status of key bird species in Nilo and Nguu North Forest Reserves, Tanzania. Bird Conservation International 9: 9-28.

Seddon, N.; Ekstrom, J. M. M.; Capper, D. R.; Isherwood, I. S.; Muna, R.; Pople, R. G.; Tarimo, E.; Timothy, J. 1999. The importance of the Nilo and Nguu North Forest Reserves for the conservation of montane forest birds in Tanzania. Biological Conservation 87: 59-72.

Spottiswoode, C. N.; Patel, I. H.; Herrmann, E.; Timberlake, J.; Bayliss, J. 2008. Threatened bird species on two little-known mountains (Chiperone and Mabu) in northern Mozambique. Ostrich 79(1): 1-7.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

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Text account compilers
Bird, J., Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Evans, M., Khwaja, N., Shutes, S., Starkey, M., Taylor, J.

Contributors
Baker, E., Baker, N., Bennun, L., Dowsett, R., Dowsett-Lemaire, F., Dyer, M., Jackson, C., Matiku, P., Msuha, M., Nemeth, E., Oatley, T., Spottiswoode, C.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Sheppardia gunningi. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Muscicapidae (Chats and Old World flycatchers)
Species name author Haagner, 1909
Population size 10000-19999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 65,100 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species
- Projected distributions under climate change