This species is highly dependent on closed-canopy primary forest and probably depends on forest containing large emergent trees. Its population is likely to be declining rapidly, in line with the massive destruction of lowland forest in the region, and it is therefore classified as Vulnerable.
Dowsett, R. J.; Forbes-Watson, A. D. 1993. Checklist of birds of the Afrotropical and Malagasy regions. Tauraco Press, Li
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
Distribution and populationMelaenornis annamarulae
20-22 cm. Large, all-black flycatcher. In the field appears matt black but in direct sunlight has deep-blue cast to plumage. Similar spp. Could be confused with Square-tailed Drongo Dicrurus ludwigii but differs by lacking notched tail and in behaviour and habitat. Voice Song consists of short, varied phrases of loud ringing notes. Calls include thin weep weep and soft churrings. Hints Occurs singly, in pairs or groups of 3-6 birds, preferring the canopy.
is endemic to the Upper Guinea rainforest block of West Africa, where it is known from Guinea
, Sierra Leone
, Côte d'Ivoire
. In Guinea, the species was previously known from Ziama (Urban et al.
1997), Déré Forest Reserve in 2003 (R. Demey in litt
. 2007, H. Rainey in litt
. 2007), and Pic de Fon, before a search in the south-east of the country in 2010 found a total of 15 pairs at four of seven sites surveyed: Douama (Binikala sous-préfecture), Sengbedou-Macenta sous-préfecture, Tétini Forest Reserve and Mount Béro Forest Reserve (Condé and Soumah 2010). In Sierra Leone it occurs in Gola Forest (two records in the late 1980s, c.475-690 birds estimated [Allport et al.
1989]; only one record in 2005-2007, thus very rare [E. Klop in litt
. 2007, J. Lindsell in litt.
2007]), while in northern Liberia
there are few records, including the foot of Mt Nimba, Grebo (R. Demey in litt
. 2007), Glaro and Wologizi (Gatter 1997). In Côte d'Ivoire
it is known from Taï National Park, Mont Péko National Park, Haute Dodo Forest Reserve (H. Rainey in litt
. 2007), La Téné Forest Reserve, Mopri (Gartshore et al.
1995) and Marahoué National Park (P. Christy per
L. D. C. Fishpool verbally 1998) and in Ghana
it was discovered in Atewa Range Forest Reserve in June 2006, followed by further records in 2007 and 2010 (Demey and Hester 2008, Borrow 2010)). In Taï National Park, it occurs at an estimated four birds per km2
(with a record from degraded land at the edge of the park) (Gartshore et al.
1995). It is generally rare throughout its range and difficult to detect, as it is a canopy species (H. Rainey in litt
. 2007). Population justification
The population size is preliminarily estimated to fall into the band 10,000-19,999 individuals. This equates to 6,667-13,333 mature individuals, rounded here to 6,000-15,000 mature individuals.Trend justification
The species's population is suspected to be declining rapidly, in line with high levels of forest clearance and degradation across the species's range.Ecology
It is found in the upper strata and canopy of closed-canopy lowland primary forest (P. Robertson in litt
, in Liberia, occurring up to 600 m (Gatter 1997)
. In Côte d'Ivoire, it is also found in large leafless trees on inselbergs and in clearings planted with maize (Urban et al.
, and has been observed in disturbed primary forest in Mont Péko National Park (H. Rainey in litt
. It may be limited by the availability of emergent trees on which it forages, which are characteristic of transitional and deciduous lowland rainforest (Gartshore et al.
. It feeds on insects and breeding is believed to take place during the wet season in July and August. Threats
Remaining large tracts of forest in Liberia are under intense and increasing pressure from commercial logging and a consequent increase in settlement and small-holder agriculture (Anon. 2000). Déré Forest Reserve in Guinea is highly threatened by clearance for small-holder farms, with an estimated 90% of the forest already destroyed in November 2003 (R. Demey in litt
. 2007, H. Rainey in litt
. 2007). Elsewhere in the Upper Guinea region, forest survives in fragmented patches which are under intense pressure for logging and agriculture (Anon. 2000). In Ghana, Atewa Range Forest Reserve has been logged in the past, transects have been cut for mineral exploration, and now mining for bauxite is being considered (Demey and Hester 2008). Conservation Actions Underway
In Sierra Leone, Gola Rainforest National Park is currently well protected (J. Lindsell in litt
. 2012). There are attempts to improve the protection of Gola National Forest in Liberia and ensure connectivity with Gola Rainforest National Park in Sierra Leone (J. Lindsell in litt
. 2012). Taï National Park and periphery habitat in south-west Côte d'Ivoire is one of the largest and best-preserved areas of Upper Guinea forest and probably contains one of the largest remaining populations given habitat clearance elsewhere and its rarity in Ghana (H. Rainey in litt
. 2007).Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct population surveys (H. S. Thompson in litt.
1999), particularly in eastern Liberia (H. Rainey in litt
. 2007). Carry out ecological studies, particularly to learn more of its breeding ecology (H. S. Thompson in litt.
1999). In Taï National Park, take measures to conserve the park and adjoining forest reserves including reducing encroachment (H. Rainey in litt
. 2007). In Taï National Park and Gola Forest, ensure that future studies include support for local people to contribute to research, management and tourism in and around the park (Gartshore et al.
1995, H. S. Thompson in litt.
Allport, G. A.; Ausden, M.; Hayman, P. V.; Robertson, P.; Wood, P. 1989. The conservation of the birds of the Gola Forest, Sierra Leone. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.
Borrow, N. 2010. Recent reports. Bull. Afr. Bird Club 17(2): 243.
Collar, N. J.; Stuart, S. N. 1985. Threatened birds of Africa and related islands: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, and International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Cambridge, U.K.
CondÃ©, M. B.; Soumah, K. 2010. Recent reports. Bulletin of the African Bird Club 17(2): 243.
Demey, R.; Hester, A. 2008. First records of Nimba Flycatcher Melaenornis annamarulae for Ghana. Bulletin of the African Bird Club 15(1): 95-96.
Gartshore, M. E.; Taylor, P. D.; Francis, I. S. 1995. Forest birds in CÃ´te d'Ivoire. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.
Gatter, W. 1997. Birds of Liberia. Pica Press, Robertsbridge, UK.
Urban, E. K.; Fry, C. H.; Keith, S. 1997. The birds of Africa vol. V. Academic Press, London.
Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species
Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection
Text account compilers
Ekstrom, J., Shutes, S., Starkey, M., Symes, A., Taylor, J.
Demey, R., Fishpool, L., Gartshore, M., Klop, E., Lindsell, J., Rainey, H., Robertson, P., Thompson, H.
IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Taylor, J.
BirdLife International (2015) Species factsheet: Melaenornis annamarulae. Downloaded from
http://www.birdlife.org on 27/11/2015.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2015) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from
http://www.birdlife.org on 27/11/2015.
This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000)
Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004)
Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.
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