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Kadavu Fantail Rhipidura personata

Justification
This species has a moderately small population within an extremely small range, and numbers are suspected to be declining owing to loss and degradation of its forest habitat. However, the range is not yet severely fragmented or restricted to few locations. For these reasons, the species is classified as Near Threatened. If the rate of decline worsens, uplisting to Vulnerable may be warranted.

Taxonomic source(s)
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

Identification
15 cm. Typical fantail with conspicuous facial and breast patterns. Dark earth-brown head, neck and cheeks contrast with two separate white eye marks and white throat. The latter is bordered by a black band which separates it from the remaining creamy buff underparts. The back and wings are dark brown, the long tail black tipped with white. Hints Any forest area on Kadavu and Ono.

Distribution and population
Rhipidura personata is endemic to Kadavu and the satellite island of Ono, Fiji. Recent surveys found this species to be fairly common in native forests, with 36 birds recorded (mostly calling males) in 23.5 hours at a mixed lowland and montane site and 13 birds in 15 hours at a montane site. Estimating an average pace of 1 km/hour and an effective detection distance of 25 m each side of the trail suggests that around 31 and 17 birds were detected per km2 at these sites. The area of dense and medium-dense forest on Kadavu is around 225 km2, suggesting that the total population falls in the band 2,500-10,000 birds (G. Dutson in litt. 2005). The species also occurs on the island of Ono which probably constitutes second sub-population as fantails rarely cross the sea, totaling about 5% of the total population. This species is probably declining at the rate of forest loss and degradation on Kadavu, which is estimated to be 0.5-0.8% per year across Fiji (Claasen 1991), but is probably higher on Kadavu which has suffered extensive fires in recent years (G. Dutson in litt. 2005).

Population justification
Recent BirdLife Fiji surveys found this species to be fairly common in native forests, with 36 birds recorded (mostly calling males) in 23.5 hours in a mixed lowland and montane site and 13 birds in 15 hours at a montane site. Estimating an average pace of 1 km / hour and an effective detection distance of 25 m each side of the trail suggests that around 31 and 17 birds were detected per km2 at these sites. There are a number of likely errors in this estimate, which must be treated as very provisional. The area of dense and medium-dense forest on Kadavu is around 225 km2, suggesting that the total population falls in the band 2,500-9,999 birds (unpublished data from Fiji IBA project via G. Dutson in litt. 2005). This equates to 1,667-6,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 1,500-7,000 mature individuals. The species also occurs on the island of Ono which probably constitutes second sub-population as fantails rarely cross the sea, totalling about 5% of the total population.

Trend justification
This species is probably declining at the rate of forest loss and degradation on Kadavu, which is estimated to be 0.5-0.8 % per year across Fiji (Claasen 1991) but probably higher on Kadavu which has suffered extensive fires in recent years (unpublished data from Fiji IBA project via G. Dutson in litt. 2005). This would lead to a population decline that approaches 10% in 12 years (the time period for three generations, extrapolating from similarly sized Australian Rhipidura fantails).

Ecology
An insectivorous bird of primary and secondary moist forest, it generally forages in the substage or lower canopy, making brief sallies after flying insects or gleaning in the foliage (Watling 2001).

Threats
Habitat loss and degradation caused by fires and agricultural encroachment are the main threats to the species.

Conservation Actions Underway
It is protected by law in Fiji. Conservation Actions Proposed
Continue surveys to determine population size and trends. Advocate for strong and long-term protection of remaining forest habitat.

Related state of the world's birds case studies

References
Claasen, D. R. 1991. Deforestation in Fiji: National environment management plan report 2.

Watling, D. 2001. A guide to the birds of Fiji and western Polynesia. Environmental Consultants (Fiji) Ltd., Suva, Fiji.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Butchart, S., Derhé, M., Ekstrom, J., Mahood, S., Pilgrim, J., Shutes, S.

Contributors
Dutson, G.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Rhipidura personata. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/11/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/11/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Rhipiduridae (Fantails)
Species name author Ramsay, 1876
Population size 1500-7000 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 460 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species