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Eastern Bristlebird Dasyornis brachypterus
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Justification
This species is considered Endangered because it has a very small range. Its population comprises small and severely fragmented subpopulations. In the northern part of its distribution, the numbers of locations and birds are rapidly decreasing, but this has little effect on overall population numbers. Although numbers are presently stable, the threat of destructive fires in the majority of this species's habitat means that an overall future decline is very likely.

Taxonomic source(s)
Christidis, L.; Boles, W. E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.

Identification
18-22 cm. Medium-sized, sturdy, grey-brown passerine. Sexes similar, female slightly smaller. Dark cinnamon-brown upperparts. Rufous-brown upperwing and uppertail. Grey-brown underparts, faintly scalloped. Grey-brown sides of belly and flanks. Brown undertail-coverts. Dull rufous-brown undertail. Red iris. Juvenile, pale brown iris. Similar spp. Similar in jizz and skulking behaviour to Rufous Scrub-bird Atrichornis rufescens but lacks barring on upperparts. Voice Frequent, ringing contact call, loud, melodious song and chattering, staccato, squeaky notes.

Distribution and population
Dasyornis brachypterus is endemic to Australia. There are two subspecies; a northern race (monoides) in south-eastern Queensland and north-eastern New South Wales and the nominate southern race (brachypterus) in eastern New South Wales and eastern Victoria. D. b. monoides is now Critically Endangered, falling from c.206 pairs in 1988 to c.16 pairs in 1997-1998 and c.13 pairs in 2006-2007 (D. Stewart in litt. 2007). There are currently thought to be fewer than 50 mature individuals in total (Garnett et al. 2011). Populations of D. b. brachypterus are stable at c.2,500 mature individuals (Garnett et al 2011). D. b. brachypterus subpopulations include about 1,250 mature individuals at Barren Grounds, 1,200 at Jervis Bay and 300 at Nadgee/Howe Flat. There are newly established subpopulations at Cataract of 50 individuals and about 10 at Red Rocks.



Population justification
Garnett et al. (2011) estimate that the declining northern race (monoides) has a population of less than 50 mature individuals and the southern race (brachypterus) is stable at c. 2,500 mature individuals. The overall population is therefore estimated at around 2,550 mature individuals, roughly equivalent to 3,800 individuals in total.

Trend justification
The northern subspecies has decreased from c.206 pairs in 1988 to c.13 pairs in 2007 (D. Stewart in litt. 2007), and although the nominate subspecies is considered stable at present, it is projected to decline in the future as it is likely to suffer declines in its area of occupancy, quality of habitat, and the number of mature individuals and sub-populations owing to destructive fires (Garnett and Crowley 2000).

Ecology
The species is a ground-dwelling, semi-flightless passerine (Bain and McPhee 2005). The northern population (D. b. monoides) usually inhabits grass tussocks in open forest-woodland, close to rainforest which provides fire refuge. The southern population (D. b. brachypterus) lives in dense, low vegetation, particularly heath, but also in surrounding woodlands. Surveys have noted birds in shrubland dominated by Melaleuca spp. or Leptospermum grandifolium, heath dominated by Hakea teretifolia and Eucalyptus woodland (Bain and McPhee 2005). It is eliminated for at least three years after fire, with density increasing until at least 15 years post-fire (Bain and McPhee 2005). This increase is slower for sites with a post-fire age of over 14 years, compared with sites less than 10 years post-fire, suggesting that after 14 years, sites are reaching their carrying capacity (Bain and McPhee 2005). Feeds near the ground, mainly on small invertebrates with some seeds and small fruits (Gibson and Baker 2004). Breeds annually in spring, laying two eggs (Higgins and Peter 2002). They breed readily in captivity and appear to have high survival rates after translocation or captive breeding and release (Garnett et al. 2011).


Threats
The main threat to the northern population is an inappropriate fire regime resulting in unsuitable habitat. If fires are too frequent they eliminate tussocks and enable the invasion by introduced woody weeds. However, when fires are too infrequent the vegetation becomes too dense for nesting. Extensive fire is the main threat to the southern population. Fire removes dense understorey vegetation, which is the species's preferred habitat (Bain and McPhee 2005). The species was lost from 10 of 11 known locations in Victoria from fire during 1978–1994 (Clarke and Bramwell 1998). In new South Wales, fires almost eliminated it from Barren Grounds in 1968 and from Nadgee in 1980 (Baker 1998). Single fires could be catastrophic across Howe Flat and Nadgee or Barren Grounds and Budderoo (J. Baker in litt. in Garnett et al. 2011). Habitat is also degraded by feral pigs Sus scrofa and domestic livestock. Other threats to the species include overgrazing, invasion of habitat by exotic weeds and predation by foxes Vulpes vulpes and feral cats Felis catus. Birdwatching may be a threat to the northern population, with repeated playback of calls having the potential to disturb breeding birds.


Conservation Actions Underway
The northern population has been the focus of extensive conservation actions. Fences and fire-breaks have been constructed. Some pig and cat control is undertaken. Vegetation monitoring sites are being established. Genetic samples have been analysed. All known territories in Queensland have been mapped. This population is now the focus of an intense captive breeding programme with the aim of re-establishing the species at several sites. The three main southern populations in New South Wales (Barren Ground-Budderoo, Jervis Bay-Booderee and Nadgee Nature Reserve) have undergone surveys and initial ecological research. Habitat mapping has been conducted at Jervis Bay. Research has been conducted over three years into the ecology and translocation of 50 birds from Bhewerre Peninsula to Beecroft Peninsula in the Jervis Bay region, including habitat selection by the species after fire. Currently, there is a study to look at a future translocation of approximately 50 birds from Barren Grounds Nature Reserve to Sydney Catchment Authority (SCA) lands. Other fire ecology research has been conducted. Research on the southern population has shown that not all habitat needs to be constantly maintained as greater than 14 years unburnt, as long as large, adjacent and long unburnt (for over 20 years) areas are protected for emigration from and recolonisation of more recently burnt areas (Bain and McPhee 2005). Annual monitoring is carried out at Jervis Bay National Park, Barren Grounds Nature Reserve and Nadgee Nature Reserve. At Nadgee, habitat monitoring is conducted every two years. Fox control is carried out for the Jervis Bay-Booderee and Barren Grounds-Budderoo populations. Weed control, particularly of Bitou Bush has been undertaken at Booderee National Park, though recent studies have shown that the species can utilise Bitou Bush as post-fire refugia. Conservation Actions Proposed
Northern population: Continue to survey for a new population in the vicinity where the species once occurred. Release captive-bred birds into areas with small populations and where the species has been recently recorded. Southern population: Monitor populations annually. Monitor habitat every two years. Define and map suitable habitat on Sydney Catchment Authority lands as part of the proposed future translocation from Barren Grounds Nature Reserve. Control foxes and weeds. Reduce the impacts of traffic at Jervis Bay and Booderre National Parks on the Bhewerre Peninsula. Develop contingency plans for fire and conduct ecologically sensitive hazard reduction burns at central populations (Barren Grounds-Budderoo and Jervis Bay-Booderee National Parks) to reduce the impacts of large intense fires. Encourage public participation and provide information. Minimise the loss of habitat on private land from future residential and commercial developments in the Jervis Bay area. Retain and manage known or potential habitat corridors between reserves (Bain and McPhee 2005). Continue to monitor the density of the species in long unburnt habitat and study the relationship between the species and the post-fire age of habitat (Bain and McPhee 2005). Both populations: Determine a suitable fire management strategy. Continue studies on population genetics. Control weeds, foxes and cats.


References
Bain, D.; McPhee, N. 2005. Resurveys of the Eastern Bristlebird Dasyornis brachypterus in central-eastern New South Wales 1999-2001: their relationship with fire and observer competence. Corella 29: 1-6.

Baker, J. 1998. Eastern Bristlebird Recovery Plan 1997–2002. NSW NPWS, Sydney.

Clarke, R.; Bramwell, M. 1998. The eastern bristlebird Dasyornis brachypterus in East Gippsland, Victoria. Australian Bird Watcher 17: 245+.

Collar, N. J.; Butchart, S. H. M. 2013. Conservation breeding and avian diversity: chances and challenges. International Zoo Yearbook.

Garnett, S. T.; Crowley, G. M. 2000. The action plan for Australian birds 2000. Environment Australia, Canberra.

Garnett, S.T., Szabo, J.K. and Dutson, G. 2011. The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2010. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood.

Gibson, L. and Baker, J. 2004. Diet of the Eastern Bristlebird Dasyornis brachypterus in New South Wales. Corella 28: 79-81.

Higgins, P. J.; Peter, J. M. 2002. Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds: pardalotes to shrike-thrushes. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Further web sources of information
Australian Govt - Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000 - Recovery Outline for Dasyornis brachypterus brachypterus

Australian Govt - Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000 - Recovery Outline for Dasyornis brachypterus monoides

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Garnett, S., McClellan, R., Taylor, J., Allinson, T, Symes, A.

Contributors
Oliver, D., Stewart, D.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Dasyornis brachypterus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/09/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/09/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

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Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Eastern bristlebird (Dasyornis brachypterus) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Endangered
Family Dasyornithidae (Bristlebirds)
Species name author (Latham, 1801)
Population size 2550 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 2,100 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species