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VU
Moustached Antpitta Grallaria alleni

Justification
This qualifies as Vulnerable because it has a small and severely fragmented range, which is contracting as a result of habitat destruction (Collar et al. 1992).

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Identification
18 cm. Medium to large antpitta with white malar stripe. Dark rufescent-brown above. Slaty-grey crown and nape. Dark brown sides of head. Broad, white malar narrowly scaled black. Russet throat bordered by white chest-band. Olive-brown breast with few narrow white streaks. Buffy-white belly. Cinnamon washed flanks and undertail-coverts. Similar spp. Scaled Antpitta G. guatimalensis has black-scaled crown and upperparts. Voice Rapid series of c.22 deep, hollow huu whistles over 2.5-3 seconds, rapidly increasing in amplitude, then trailing off at end.

Distribution and population
Grallaria alleni is known from the west slope of the Central Andes in Colombia, and both Andean slopes in north Ecuador. The nominate subspecies was collected near Salento, Quindío, in 1911, and has been recorded in nearby Ucumarí Regional Park, Risaralda, Colombia, several times during 1994-2000 (P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999, C. Downing verbally 2000, Krabbe and Coopmans 2000). The subspecies andaquiensis was described from a specimen taken on the west slope of the southern East Andes in Cueva de los Guácharos National Park, Huila, Colombia, in 1971 and, during the 1990s, has been found at single sites in Napo and Cotopaxi (Freile and Chaves 2004) and at four sites in Pichincha, Ecuador (J. Lyons in litt. 1998, N. Krabbe in litt. 1998, Krabbe and Coopmans 2000). Suitable habitat covers an estimated 3,500 km2 in Ecuador (Krabbe et al. 1998), but it is unclear how much of this is occupied. Recent surveys in Ecuador found at least 4-6 territories along three 1 km transects (J. F. Freile in litt. 2004, 2008). There are several new localities where the species has been recorded in Ecuador, mostly concentrated on the western slopes of Pichincha province (J. F. Freile in litt. 2004, 2008), and the species has recently been discovered to be much commoner and more extensively distributed in Colombia than previously thought (F. G. Stiles in litt. 2005). The paucity of earlier records is related to the fact that its vocalisations were unknown until recently.

Population justification
This species is described as rare and essentially unknown; its population is placed in the band 2,500-9,999 individuals. This equates to 1,667-6,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 1,500-7,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification
This species's population is suspected to be declining slowly, in line with rates of habitat loss within its range.

Ecology
It occurs in wet, mossy cloud-forest, usually at 1,800-2,500 m in ravines or on steep slopes (Krabbe and Coopmans 2000). It has been seen on the ground and perched up to 3 m in the understorey (Krabbe and Coopmans 2000). Nests with nestlings have been found in March and December (i.e. during the wet season) (Freile and Renjifo 2003, Greeney and Gelis 2006). Food items recorded being taken to the nest include earthworms and katydids (Greeney and Gelis 2006).

Threats
Since the 17th century, most if not all cloud-forest in the upper Magdalena valley (Stiles 1998) and the Central Andes, Colombia, has been logged, settled and converted to agriculture. The west Andean slopes in Ecuador have also been altered and fragmented, particularly in Pichincha (Krabbe et al. 1998, J. F. Freile in litt. 2004, 2008). A large area of intact habitat exists on Volcán Sumaco in Napo but, in 1990, the human population was growing and forest clearance for agriculture was having an impact at c.1,000 m and above. Cueva de los Guácharos is increasingly threatened by encroaching human settlement and opium production (Wege and Long 1995). However, the species has been shown to use secondary forest freely within parts of its Colombian range and occurs in mature secondary forest at Cotopaxi (J. F. Freile in litt. 2004, 2008, F. G. Stiles in litt. 2005). More extensive and well-protected forest remains in the eastern Andes but records here are still sparse (Freile et al. 2010).

Conservation Actions Underway
Subspecies andaquiensis is known from Maquipucuna Reserve (Pichincha), Mindo Protected Forest, Rio Guajalito, Cofán-Bermejo and La Otonga Reserves, and Cueva de los Guácharos and possibly Sumaco-Napo Galeras National Park (Krabbe and Coopmans 2000, J. F. Freile in litt. 2004, 2008), The recently created Sumaco-Napo Galeras National Park should prevent habitat loss from reaching the altitudes inhabited by the species in Napo. Ucumarí Regional Park holds a population of the nominate subspecies and it may occur in the adjacent Otún-Quimbaya Fauna and Flora Sanctuary and Alto Quindío Acaime Natural Reserve, both in Quindío (Krabbe and Coopmans 2000). On the east slope of the Andes in Ecuador its range is fairly well covered (ca. 60%) by five protected areas (Cofan-Bermejo, Cayambe-Coca and Antisana Ecological Reserves, and Sumaco-Napo Galeras and Llanganates National Parks) (J. F. Freile in litt. 2004, 2008, Freile et al. 2010). Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey (with knowledge of its vocalisations) areas of suitable habitat, perhaps especially on the east slope of the Andes from Tungurahua, Ecuador north to Caquetá, Colombia, and also in central Ecuador in the large and extensively forested Sangay National Park (J. F. Freile in litt. 2004, 2008). Focus efforts to protect montane forests and help local communities to manage the land sustainably on the Pacific slope in Pichincha and northern Cotopaxi (Krabbe et al. 1998).

References
Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Freile, J. F.; Chaves, J. A. 2004. Interesting distributional records and notes on the biology of bird species from a cloud forest reserve in north-west Ecuador. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 124: 6-16.

Freile, J. F.; Renjifo, L. M. 2003. First nesting records of the Moustached Antpitta (Grallaria alleni). Wilson Bulletin 115: 11-15.

Greeney, H. F.; Gelis, R. A. 2006. Observations on parental care of the Moustached Antpitta (Grallaria alleni) in northwestern Ecuador. Ornitologia Neotropical 17: 313-316.

Krabbe, N.; Coopmans, P. 2000. Rediscovery of Grallaria alleni (Formicariidae) with notes on its range, song and identification. Ibis 142: 183-187.

Krabbe, N.; Skov, F.; Fjeldså, J.; Petersen, I. K. 1998. Avian diversity in the Ecuadorian Andes - an atlas of distribution of Andean forest birds and conservation priorities. Centre for Research on Cultural and Biological Diversity of Andean Rainsforests (DIVA), Ronde, Denmark.

Stiles, F. G. 1998. Notes on the biology of two threatened species of Bangsia tanagers in northwestern Colombia. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 118: 25-31.

Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Wege, D. C.; Long, A. J. 1995. Key Areas for threatened birds in the Neotropics. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomoía y la categoría de la Lista Roja de la UICN pudo haber cambiado desde esta publicación.

View photos and videos and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Hardcastle, J., Isherwood, I., Sharpe, C J, Stuart, T., Symes, A., Williams, R.

Contributors
Downing, C., Freile, J., Krabbe, N., Lyons, J., Salaman, P., Stiles, F., Greeney, H.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Grallaria alleni. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Moustached antpitta (Grallaria alleni) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Formicariidae (Antthrushes and antpittas)
Species name author Chapman, 1912
Population size 1500-7000 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 8,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species