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Rondonia Bushbird Clytoctantes atrogularis

Justification
This species is listed as Vulnerable because it is presumed to have a small population, which is believed to be declining owing to expansion of the agricultural frontier. It is still very poorly known and it could be downlisted to Near Threatened or even Least Concern were its range extended further or if surveys indicated that it was less scarce than currently believed.

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Identification
17 cm. Plain antbird with striking upturned bill. Huge bill, laterally compressed with lower mandible upturned. Male black. Female rufous-chestnut with black pectoral shield. Similar spp. Black Bushbird Neoctantes niger is slightly smaller (16 cm) with less heavy bill. Voice Loud, trilled whistle tree-tree-tree.

Distribution and population
Clytoctantes atrogularis was known from a single female specimen and two sightings of males at the type-locality on the west bank of the rio Ji-paraná in Rondônia, Brazil, in 1986, and a possible sight record of a male along the rio Teles Pires, at Alta Floresta, north Mato Grosso, in 1989 (Zimmer et al. 1997a). Subsequently, in 2004, a pair of Clytoctantes bushbirds, almost certainly this species, was found near the rio Sucunduri, Amazonas (Whitney 2005), in May 2006, a pair was seen and tape-recorded in Reserva Biológica do Jarú, at Ji-Paraná, Rondônia, close to the border with Mato Grosso (D. Buzzetti in litt. 2006), and in 2006 a female was found near the Rio Roosevelt Lodge, Amazonas (Whittaker 2009). It has apparently also been recorded at the Parque Estadual Igarapés do Juruena, Mato Grosso (Oliveira et al. 2009 per A. Lees in litt. 2011). Its centre of distribution is probably the upper rio Madeira/Tapajós interfluvium (Whitney 2005).


Population justification
New records have massively increased this species's Extent of Occurrence, however it is likely to be very rare within its range. Its population is estimated to number 2,500-9,999 mature individuals, equating to 3,750-14,999 individuals in total, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals.

Trend justification
It is very hard to discern trends owing to the paucity of records, and because an increase in the amount of secondary forest may actually benefit this species. However, an on-going decline of 1-19% over ten years is suspected to be taking place owing to deforestation.

Ecology
It is very poorly known. Its habitat is mature terra firme forest dominated by dense vine-tangles, where it appears to feed 0.2-5 m above ground. It may be naturally rare as the three records from the type-locality were the result of several thousand days fieldwork in the area. The species appears to be resistant to some degree of forest degradation and occurs in man-made second growth and probably evolved in successional forest habitats (Whitney 2005).

Threats
The principal threats are the expansion of the agricultural frontier as a direct result of highway construction (Cleary 1991) (which has declined in the 1990s) and commercial logging (which is increasingly significantly) (M. Cohn-Haft in litt. 1999). Although its range includes adjacent parts of Amazonas and Mato Grosso, deforestation in Rondônia proceeds apace (Skole and Tucker 1993), at the rate of 4,000 km2 per year. Fortunately, a dam project designed to flood the Cachoeira Nazaré has been abandoned, but other hydroelectric schemes in Rondônia are apparently proceeding (Whitney 2005).


Conservation Actions Underway
The vicinity of type-locality has been extensively surveyed but the incredible paucity of information makes effective conservation action difficult. The state government of Amazonas, Brazil , as part of its Programa Zona Franca Verde, has created a mosaic of nine conservation areas protecting c. 3,070,000 ha of mostly forested land in the south of the state, including the important Madeira/Tapajós interfluvium (Whitney 2005). Conservation Actions Proposed
Reassess forest state and species's status at the type-locality. Survey for the species elsewhere in Rondônia, Mato Grosso and Amazonas. The call has recently been recorded and playback should be used during future surveys. Establish reserves in this area of the Brazilian Shield to protect this and other threatened species. Eliminate incentives for cattle-ranching and other inappropriate forms of agriculture within the region.

References
Cleary, D. 1991. The Brazilian rainforest: politics, finance, mining and the environment. Economist Intelligence Unit, London.

Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Lanyon, S. M.; Stotz, D. F.; Willard, D. E. 1990. Clytoctantes atrogularis, a new species of antbird from western Brazil. Wilson Bulletin 102: 571-580.

Skole, D., Tucker, C. 1993. Tropical deforestation and habitat fragmentation in the Amazon - satellite data from 1978 to 1988 .

Whitney, B. M. 2005. Clytoctantes (atrogularis?) in Amazonas, Brazil, and its relationship to Neoctantes niger (Thamnophilidae). Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 125: 108-113.

Zimmer, K. J.; Parker, T. A., III; Isler, M. L.; Isler, P. R. 1997. Survey of a southern Amazonian avifauna: the Alta Floresta region, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Ornithological Monographs 48: 887-918.

Further web sources of information
Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) species/site profile. This species has been identified as an AZE trigger due to its IUCN Red List status and limited range.

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomoía y la categoría de la Lista Roja de la UICN pudo haber cambiado desde esta publicación.

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Bird, J., Butchart, S., Mahood, S., Pople, R., Sharpe, C J, Williams, R.

Contributors
Buzzetti, D., Cohn-Haft, M., Silveira, L., Whitney, B., Lees, A.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Clytoctantes atrogularis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Thamnophilidae (Antbirds)
Species name author Lanyon, Stotz & Willard, 1990
Population size 2500-9999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 30,100 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species