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Three-wattled Bellbird Procnias tricarunculatus

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Endangered  
Vulnerable A2c+3c+4c 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Vulnerable
2008 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Near Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status altitudinal migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type continent
shelf island
Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 22,600 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 88,200 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 6000-15000 poor Estimated 2004
Population trend Decreasing poor -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulation 1001-10000 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.6 - - -
Population justification: The population size is preliminarily estimated to fall into the band 10,000-19,999 individuals. This equates to 6,667-13,333 mature individuals, rounded here to 6,000-15,000 mature individuals.
Trend justification: There are no new data on population trends; however, the species is suspected to be declining rapidly, in line with rates of habitat loss and degradation.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Costa Rica Native Extant Yes      
Honduras Native Extant Yes      
Nicaragua Native Extant Yes      
Panama Native Extant Yes      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Costa Rica Arenal-Monteverde site factsheet
Costa Rica Cahuita, Gandoca-Manzanillo and Migratory Bird Corridor site factsheet
Costa Rica Caribbean lowlands and wetlands site factsheet
Costa Rica Central Volcanic Cordillera site factsheet
Costa Rica Fila Costeña site factsheet
Costa Rica La Amistad Caribe site factsheet
Costa Rica Los Santos, La Amistad Pacífico site factsheet
Costa Rica Maleku-Caño Negro site factsheet
Costa Rica Nicoya Peninsula site factsheet
Costa Rica Palo Verde Wetlands site factsheet
Costa Rica Sierpe Wetlands and Osa Peninsula site factsheet
Costa Rica Tárcoles, Carara and La Cangreja site factsheet
Costa Rica Tilarán Highlands site factsheet
Honduras Parque Nacional Patuca site factsheet
Honduras Río Plátano site factsheet
Honduras Sierra de Agalta site factsheet
Honduras Tawahka site factsheet
Nicaragua Apante Hill site factsheet
Nicaragua Arenal Hill site factsheet
Nicaragua Datanlí-El Diablo Hill site factsheet
Nicaragua El Jaguar site factsheet
Nicaragua Esperanza Verde site factsheet
Nicaragua Kilambe Hill site factsheet
Nicaragua Los Guatuzos site factsheet
Nicaragua Maderas Volcano site factsheet
Nicaragua Miraflor site factsheet
Nicaragua Murra site factsheet
Nicaragua Musun Hill site factsheet
Nicaragua Peñas Blancas Massif site factsheet
Nicaragua Quirragua Mountains and adjacent landscape site factsheet
Panama Bocas del Toro Archipelago site factsheet
Panama Cerro Hoya National Park site factsheet
Panama Coiba National Park site factsheet
Panama El Chorogo-Palo Blanco site factsheet
Panama Fortuna Forest Reserve site factsheet
Panama General de División Omar Torrijos Herrera National Park site factsheet
Panama Golfo de los Mosquitos Forests site factsheet
Panama La Amistad International Park (part of La Amistad and Surrounding Areas AZE) site factsheet
Panama Palo Seco Protection Forest site factsheet
Panama San San Pond Sak Wetlands site factsheet
Panama Santa Clara site factsheet
Panama Santa Fé National Park site factsheet
Panama Volcán Barú National Park site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Altitude 0 - 3000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching / Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting / Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Procnias tricarunculatus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/11/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/11/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Cotingidae (Cotingas)
Species name author (Verreaux & Verreaux, 1853)
Population size 6000-15000 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 22,600 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species