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LC
Great Frigatebird Fregata minor

Justification
Although this species may have a restricted range, it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Taxonomic source(s)
Christidis, L.; Boles, W. E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.
Turbott, E. G. 1990. Checklist of the birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

Distribution and population
Major breeding populations of the Greater Frigatebird are found in tropical waters of the Pacific and Indian Ocean, as well as one population in the South Atlantic (Trinidade and Martim Vaz, Brazil). It is predominately sedentary, with immature and non-breeding individuals dispersing throughout the tropical seas with the exception of the east and central Atlantic.

Trend justification
The population is suspected to be in decline owing to ongoing habitat destruction and unsustainable levels of exploitation.

Ecology
The Greater Frigatebird breeds on small, remote tropical and sub-tropical islands, in mangroves or bushes and occaisionally on bare ground (del Hoyo et al. 1992). Fish, squid and chicks of other bird species (e.g. Sooty Terns) have all been identified as prey (Weimerskirch et al. 2004). It is frequently observed attempting to steal food from other bird species (kleptoparasitism) (Vickery and Brooke 1994). However, this behaviour represents a minor source of energy (Vickery and Brooke 1994, Weimerskirch et al. 2004), and they are frequently observed foraging at the coast or inland at most places where they breed (Weimerskirch et al. 2004).

Related state of the world's birds case studies

References
del Hoyo, J.; Elliot, A.; Sargatal, J. 1992. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 1: Ostrich to Ducks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Vandenbosch, R. 2000. Effects of ENSO and PDO events on seabird populations as revealed by Christmas Bird Count data. Waterbirds 23: 416-422.

Vickery, J & Brooke, M. 1994. The Kleptoparasitic Interactions between Great Frigatebirds and Masked Boobies on Henderson Island, South Pacific. Condor 96: 331–340.

Weimerskirch, H.; Inchausti, P.; Guinet, C.; Barbraud, C. 2003. Trends in bird and seal populations as indicators of a system shift in the Southern Ocean. Antarctic Science 15: 249-256.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

View photos and videos and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Calvert, R.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Fregata minor. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Great frigatebird (Fregata minor) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Fregatidae (Frigatebirds)
Species name author (Gmelin, 1789)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 24,800 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species