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Black-headed Ibis Threskiornis melanocephalus

IUCN Red List Criteria

Near Threatened (criteria nearly met) A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Near Threatened
2008 Near Threatened
2006 Near Threatened
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type continent
shelf island
Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,560,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 2,660,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 10000-19999 medium Estimated 2002
Population trend Decreasing medium -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation 1001-10000 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 10.1 - - -
Population justification: The population is estimated to number up to 10,000 individuals in south Asia, plus up to another 10,000 in south-east Asia and up to 100 in east Asia (Q. Wang in litt. 2002). This is likely to total fewer than 20,000 mature individuals, and so the population is placed in the band 10,000-19,999 mature individuals. This equates to 15,000-29,999 individuals in total, rounded here to 15,000-30,000 individuals.
Trend justification: The species is suspected to be in moderately rapid decline owing to hunting, egg collecting, disturbance at breeding colonies, drainage and agricultural conversion.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Bangladesh Native Extant   Yes    
Cambodia Native Extant Yes      
China (mainland) Native Extant   Yes    
Hong Kong (China) Native Extant   Yes    
India Native Extant Yes      
Indonesia Native Extant       Yes
Japan Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Laos Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Malaysia Native Extant   Yes    
Mongolia Vagrant Extant        
Myanmar Native Extant   Yes    
Nepal Native Extant   Yes    
Pakistan Native Extant Yes      
Philippines Native Extant   Yes    
Russia (Asian) Native Extant        
South Korea Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Sri Lanka Native Extant Yes      
Thailand Native Extant   Yes    
Vietnam Native Extant Yes      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Cambodia Ang Tropeang Thmor site factsheet
Cambodia Prek Toal site factsheet
China (mainland) Zhalong Nature Reserve site factsheet
India Bhashkarpara site factsheet
India Gudavi Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
India Harike Lake Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
India Karanji Tank site factsheet
India Narasambudhi Lake site factsheet
India Vettangudi Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
Indonesia Pulau Dua site factsheet
Myanmar Gulf of Mottama site factsheet
Nepal Farmlands in Lumbini area site factsheet
Nepal Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and Koshi Barrage site factsheet
Sri Lanka Giants Tank site factsheet
Sri Lanka Yala site factsheet
Vietnam Bac Lieu site factsheet
Vietnam Tra Cu site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use / Abstraction of ground water (domestic use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents / Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Threskiornis melanocephalus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Threskiornithidae (Ibises, Spoonbills)
Species name author (Latham, 1790)
Population size 10000-19999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 1,560,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species