email a friend
printable version
Lesser Flamingo Phoeniconaias minor
BirdLife is updating this factsheet for the 2016 Red List
Please email us with any relevant information

IUCN Red List Criteria

Near Threatened (criteria nearly met) A2c+3c+4c 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Near Threatened
2008 Near Threatened
2006 Near Threatened
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status nomadic Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type continent
Average mass -


  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 331,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals medium Estimated 2005
Population trend Decreasing poor Suspected -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 15.5 - - -
Population justification: The population is estimated to number 15,000-25,000 individuals in West Africa, 1,500,000-2,500,000 in East Africa, 55,000-65,000 in South Africa and Madagascar, and 650,000 in south Asia.
Trend justification: The overall population trend is decreasing owing to habitat degradation and disturbance, although some populations may be stable and others have unknown trends (Delany and Scott 2006), thus a moderately rapid decline is suspected overall.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Afghanistan Vagrant Extant        
Angola Native Extant   Yes    
Botswana Native Extant       Yes
Burundi Native Extant   Yes    
Cameroon Native Extant   Yes    
Chad Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Comoros Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Native Extant   Yes    
Djibouti Native Extant   Yes    
Egypt Vagrant Extant        
Eritrea Native Extant   Yes    
Ethiopia Native Extant   Yes    
Gabon Native Extant   Yes    
Gambia Native Extant   Yes    
Ghana Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Guinea Native Extant   Yes    
Guinea-Bissau Native Extant   Yes    
India Native Extant       Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Kenya Native Extant   Yes    
Lesotho Native Extant   Yes    
Madagascar Native Extant   Yes    
Malawi Native Extant   Yes    
Mauritania Native Extant   Yes    
Mauritius Vagrant Extant        
Morocco Vagrant Extant        
Mozambique Native Extant   Yes    
Namibia Native Extant       Yes
Niger Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Nigeria Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Oman Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Pakistan Native Extant   Yes    
Réunion (to France) Vagrant Extant        
Rwanda Vagrant Extant   Yes    
São Tomé e Príncipe Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Saudi Arabia Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Senegal Native Extant   Yes    
Sierra Leone Native Extant   Yes    
Somalia Vagrant Extant   Yes    
South Africa Native Extant       Yes
Spain Vagrant Extant        
Sri Lanka Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Sudan Unknown Extant   Yes    
Swaziland Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Tanzania Native Extant       Yes
Uganda Native Extant   Yes    
United Arab Emirates Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Yemen Native Extant   Yes    
Zambia Native Extant   Yes    
Zimbabwe Native Extant   Yes    

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Angola Iona National Park site factsheet
Angola Quiçama site factsheet
Botswana Makgadikgadi Pans site factsheet
Djibouti Lac Abhé site factsheet
Ethiopia Abijatta - Shalla Lakes National Park site factsheet
Ethiopia Akaki - Aba-Samuel wetlands site factsheet
Ethiopia Bahir Dar - Lake Tana site factsheet
Ethiopia Bishoftu lake site factsheet
Ethiopia Chelekleka lake and swamp site factsheet
Ethiopia Fogera plains site factsheet
Ethiopia Green Lake site factsheet
Ethiopia Koka dam and Lake Gelila site factsheet
Ethiopia Lake Chew Bahir site factsheet
Ethiopia Lake Langano site factsheet
Ethiopia Nechisar National Park and surroundings site factsheet
Guinea Iles Tristao site factsheet
Guinea Rio Kapatchez site factsheet
Guinea-Bissau Rio Cacheu site factsheet
Guinea-Bissau Rio Mansôa and Gêba estuary site factsheet
India Bhashkarpara site factsheet
India Mahul - Sewree Creek site factsheet
India Wild Ass Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
Kenya Lake Bogoria National Reserve site factsheet
Kenya Lake Elmenteita site factsheet
Kenya Lake Magadi site factsheet
Kenya Lake Nakuru National Park site factsheet
Madagascar Bemamba Wetland Complex site factsheet
Madagascar Bombetoka Bay - Marovoay NPA site factsheet
Madagascar Complexe de la Reserve de Chasse du Lac Ihotry - Delta de Mangoky site factsheet
Madagascar Lakes Anony and Erombo site factsheet
Madagascar Mahavavy - Kinkony wetlands NPA site factsheet
Madagascar Manambolomaty wetland complex and Tsimembo Classified Forest site factsheet
Madagascar Menabe forest complex site factsheet
Madagascar Tsimanampetsotsa National Park and extension site factsheet
Mauritania Aftout es Sâheli site factsheet
Mauritania Chott Boul site factsheet
Mauritania Diawling National Park site factsheet
Namibia Cape Cross lagoon site factsheet
Namibia Etosha National Park site factsheet
Namibia Mile 4 saltworks site factsheet
Namibia Namib-Naukluft Park site factsheet
Namibia Sandwich Harbour site factsheet
Namibia Sperrgebiet site factsheet
Namibia Tsumkwe pan system site factsheet
Namibia Walvis Bay site factsheet
Senegal Djoudj wetlands site factsheet
Senegal Lac de Guiers site factsheet
South Africa Chrissie Pans site factsheet
South Africa False Bay Nature Reserve site factsheet
South Africa Lake St Lucia and Mkuze Swamps site factsheet
South Africa Richards Bay Game Reserve site factsheet
South Africa Sandveld and Bloemhof Dam Nature Reserves site factsheet
South Africa Spitskop Dam site factsheet
Tanzania Arusha National Park and vicinity site factsheet
Tanzania Lake Burungi site factsheet
Tanzania Lake Eyasi site factsheet
Tanzania Lake Kitangire site factsheet
Tanzania Lake Manyara site factsheet
Tanzania Lake Natron and Engaruka basin site factsheet
Tanzania Longido Game Controlled Area site factsheet
Tanzania Ngorongoro Conservation Area site factsheet
Tanzania Nyumba ya Mungu reservoir site factsheet
Tanzania Serengeti National Park site factsheet
Tanzania Singida lakes site factsheet
Uganda Kyambura Wildlife Reserve site factsheet
Uganda Lake Mburo National Park site factsheet
Uganda Queen Elizabeth National Park and Lake George site factsheet
Zambia Mweru Wantipa National Park site factsheet
Zambia Sumbu National Park and Tondwa Game Management Area site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Salt Exploitation Sites Suitable resident
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Wastewater Treatment Areas Suitable resident
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes Suitable resident
Marine Neritic Estuaries Suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes Suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes and Flats Suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use / Abstraction of surface water (domestic use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use / Dams (size unknown) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Industrial & military effluents / Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation


Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Eggs Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - Subsistence, National
Food - human - - - Subsistence, National

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Phoeniconaias minor. Downloaded from on 21/10/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 21/10/2016.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Phoenicopteridae (Flamingos)
Species name author (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1798)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 331,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species
- Projected distributions under climate change