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Philippine Eagle Pithecophaga jefferyi

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered A2cd;C2a(ii) 
Endangered A2cd;C2a(i);D1 
Vulnerable A2cd;C2a(i);D 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Critically Endangered
2012 Critically Endangered
2009 Critically Endangered
2008 Critically Endangered
2007 Critically Endangered
2004 Critically Endangered
2000 Critically Endangered
1996 Critically Endangered
1994 Critically Endangered
1988 Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type shelf island
Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 146,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 180-500 medium Estimated 2003
Population trend Decreasing poor -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulation 160-470 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 18.5 - - -
Population justification: Bueser et al. (2003) estimated the population on Mindanao to number 82-233 pairs. Numbers elsewhere are tiny: perhaps six pairs on Samar, two on Leyte and probabaly very few on Luzon, giving a total population size of perhaps 90-250 pairs, or 180-500 mature individuals, roughly equating to 250-750 individuals in total.
Trend justification: An extremely rapid decline is suspected to have taken place over the last three generations, based on rates of habitat loss in the past (given this species's presumably long generation length), which are on-going.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Philippines Native Extant Yes      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Philippines Anonang-Lobi Range site factsheet
Philippines Aurora Memorial National Park site factsheet
Philippines Bislig site factsheet
Philippines Lake Lanao site factsheet
Philippines Liguasan marsh site factsheet
Philippines Lituban-Quipit Watershed site factsheet
Philippines Mount Agtuuganon and Mount Pasian site factsheet
Philippines Mount Apo Natural Park site factsheet
Philippines Mount Balatukan site factsheet
Philippines Mount Busa-Kiamba site factsheet
Philippines Mount Daguma site factsheet
Philippines Mount Dapiak-Mount Paraya site factsheet
Philippines Mount Dingalan site factsheet
Philippines Mount Diwata Range site factsheet
Philippines Mount Hamiguitan Range Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
Philippines Mount Hilong-hilong site factsheet
Philippines Mount Kalatungan Range Natural Park site factsheet
Philippines Mount Kampalili-Puting Bato site factsheet
Philippines Mount Kitanglad Range Natural Park site factsheet
Philippines Mount Latian complex site factsheet
Philippines Mount Malindang Natural Park site factsheet
Philippines Mount Matutum Protected Landscape site factsheet
Philippines Mount Nacolod site factsheet
Philippines Mount Sinaka site factsheet
Philippines Mount Sugarloaf site factsheet
Philippines Mount Tago Range site factsheet
Philippines Mount Timolan Protected Landscape site factsheet
Philippines Mounts Banahaw-San Cristobal National Park site factsheet
Philippines Mounts Irid-Angilo and Binuang site factsheet
Philippines Munai / Tambo site factsheet
Philippines North Eastern Cagayan Protected Landscape and Seascape site factsheet
Philippines Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park site factsheet
Philippines Pagbilao and Tayabas Bay site factsheet
Philippines Pasonanca Natural Park site factsheet
Philippines Peñablanca Protected Landscape and Seascape site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Altitude 150 - 1800 m Occasional altitudinal limits (max) 2000 m

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Shifting agriculture Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting / Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents / Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Pithecophaga jefferyi. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Critically Endangered
Family Accipitridae (Hawks, Eagles)
Species name author Ogilvie-Grant, 1897
Population size 180-500 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 146,000 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species