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Franklin's Gull Larus pipixcan
BirdLife is updating this factsheet for the 2016 Red List
Please email us with any relevant information

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass -


  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 733,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 733,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Increasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 10.5 - - -
Trend justification: This species has undergone a small or statistically insignificant increase over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Argentina Native Extant        
Aruba (to Netherlands) Native Extant        
Australia Vagrant Extant        
Barbados Vagrant Extant   Yes Yes  
Belgium Vagrant Extant        
Belize Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Bermuda (to UK) Vagrant Extant     Yes  
Bolivia Native Extant        
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Native Extant        
Brazil Native Extant        
Canada Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Chile Native Extant        
Colombia Native Extant        
Costa Rica Native Extant   Yes    
Cuba Vagrant Extant        
Curaçao (to Netherlands) Native Extant        
Dominican Republic Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Ecuador Native Extant        
El Salvador Native Extant        
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Native Extant        
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Vagrant Extant        
France Vagrant Extant        
French Guiana Native Extant        
French Polynesia Vagrant Extant        
Gambia Vagrant Extant        
Germany Vagrant Extant        
Guadeloupe (to France) Vagrant Extant        
Guatemala Native Extant        
Haiti Vagrant Extant        
Honduras Native Extant        
Iceland Vagrant Extant        
Ireland Vagrant Extant        
Japan Vagrant Extant        
Kiribati Vagrant Extant        
Marshall Islands Vagrant Extant        
Mexico Native Extant        
Micronesia, Federated States of Vagrant Extant        
Morocco Vagrant Extant        
Mozambique Vagrant Extant        
Namibia Vagrant Extant        
Netherlands Vagrant Extant        
Nicaragua Native Extant        
Norway Vagrant Extant        
Panama Native Extant        
Paraguay Native Extant        
Peru Native Extant        
Portugal Vagrant Extant        
Puerto Rico (to USA) Native Extant        
Senegal Vagrant Extant        
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) Native Extant        
South Africa Vagrant Extant        
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands Vagrant Extant        
Spain Vagrant Extant        
St Helena (to UK) Vagrant Extant        
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) Vagrant Extant     Yes  
Sweden Vagrant Extant        
Trinidad and Tobago Vagrant Extant        
United Kingdom Vagrant Extant        
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Vagrant Extant        
USA Native Extant Yes      
Venezuela Native Extant        
Zambia Vagrant Extant        

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Canada Beaverhill Lake site factsheet
Canada Bigstick Lake Plain site factsheet
Canada Blackstrap Coulee site factsheet
Canada Frank Lake (south) site factsheet
Canada Luck Lake site factsheet
Canada Netley-Libau Marsh site factsheet
Canada Oak Hammock Marsh WMA site factsheet
Canada Oak Lake/Plum Lakes Area site factsheet
Canada Reed Lake site factsheet
Canada Rice Lake site factsheet
Canada Whitewater Lake site factsheet
Chile Bahía Rilán site factsheet
Chile Bio-bio Desembocadura site factsheet
Chile Costa sur de Arica site factsheet
Chile Desembocadura del Río Bío-Bío site factsheet
Chile Desembocadura del Río Itata site factsheet
Chile Desembocadura del Río Lluta site factsheet
Chile Desembocadura del Río Maipo site factsheet
Chile Estuario Lenga site factsheet
Chile Humedal de Batuco site factsheet
Chile Humedal-Estuario Tubul-Raqui site factsheet
Chile Humedal-Marisma Rocuant Andalién site factsheet
Chile Isla Santa María site factsheet
Chile Playa Colún site factsheet
Chile Playa Pilolcura site factsheet
Chile Playa Sur de Arica site factsheet
Chile Puerto de Arica site factsheet
Chile Santuario de la Naturaleza Península de Hualpén site factsheet
Ecuador Áreas costeras de Fernandina y del occidente de Isabela site factsheet
Ecuador Isla Española site factsheet
Mexico Istmo de Tehuantepec-Mar Muerto site factsheet
Mexico Tecolutla site factsheet
Mexico The Encrucijada site factsheet
Peru Estuario de Virrila site factsheet
Peru Laguna de Ite site factsheet
Peru Pantanos de Villa site factsheet
USA Bear Lake National Wildlife Refuge site factsheet
USA Bear River Bay UT02 site factsheet
USA Grays Lake National Wildlife Refuge site factsheet
USA Market Lake Wildlife Management Area site factsheet
USA Mud Lake Wildlife Management Area site factsheet
USA Ogden Bay UT03 site factsheet
USA Oxford Slough site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) marginal non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) marginal non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Altitude 0 - 2500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  


Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Larus pipixcan. Downloaded from on 26/10/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 26/10/2016.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Laridae (Gulls, Terns, Skimmers)
Species name author Wagler, 1813
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Increasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 733,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species