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Black-necked Crane Grus nigricollis

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Endangered  
Vulnerable C2a(ii) 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Vulnerable
2009 Vulnerable
2008 Vulnerable
2006 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status altitudinal migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type continent
Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 64,100 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 64,100 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 6600 medium Estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing poor -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Largest subpopulation 6600 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 13 - - -
Population justification:

The global population is estimated at c.10,070-10,970 individuals in total, probably including c.6,600 mature individuals (J. Harris in litt. 2012).
Trend justification: This species's population is presumed to have decreased in line with levels of grassland degradation (owing to intensive grazing and pesticide use) and drying up of marshes (due to increased extraction and desertification), and changing agricultural techniques that have reduced the availability of grain in cultivated areas. Recent increases appear to be genuine, but may possibly be a result of more thorough surveys and perhaps an increased concentration of birds at fewer sites.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Bhutan Native Extant   Yes    
China (mainland) Native Extant       Yes
India Native Extant       Yes
Nepal Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Vietnam Native Extinct   Yes    

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Bhutan Bumdelling Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
Bhutan Bumthang wetlands site factsheet
Bhutan Phopjika and Khatekha valleys site factsheet
China (mainland) Aksayqin Hu and alpine grassland site factsheet
China (mainland) Aqqik Kol and alpine grassland site factsheet
China (mainland) Area between Qinghai Hu and A'nyêmaqên site factsheet
China (mainland) Ayark Kol and alpine grassland site factsheet
China (mainland) Bangong Co site factsheet
China (mainland) Cao Hai Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Changshagongma Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Changtang plateau site factsheet
China (mainland) Damxung site factsheet
China (mainland) Dashanbao Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Dunhuang Nature Reserve and Western Qilian Shan mountains site factsheet
China (mainland) Eastern Qilian Shan mountains site factsheet
China (mainland) Ganligahai-Zecha Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Haizishan Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Heishuihe Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Henghe Liangzi site factsheet
China (mainland) Huang He Shouqu Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Huize Black-necked Crane Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Jingyu Hu site factsheet
China (mainland) Karze Reservoir site factsheet
China (mainland) Kasha Hu Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Labahe Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Lashi Hai site factsheet
China (mainland) Lugu Hu site factsheet
China (mainland) Mamize Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Nagpag Co (Napa Hai) Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Nam Co site factsheet
China (mainland) Qinghai Hu (Koko Nor) site factsheet
China (mainland) Sanjiangyuan Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Sanjiangyuan Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Siling Co Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Wulianfeng site factsheet
China (mainland) Xiaohegou Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Yamdrok Co site factsheet
China (mainland) Yarlong Zangpo Middle Reaches Black-necked Crane Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Yongshan Maolin site factsheet
China (mainland) Zoigê (Ruo'ergai) Marshes site factsheet
India Buxa Tiger Reserve (National Park) site factsheet
India Chushul marshes site factsheet
India Hanle Plains (Hanle River marshes) site factsheet
India Lhonak Valley site factsheet
India Pangong Tso site factsheet
India Sangti Valley site factsheet
India Tso Kar Basin site factsheet
India Tso Lhamo Plateau - Lashar - Sebu La - Yumesamdong Complex site factsheet
India Tso Morari Lake and adjacent marshes site factsheet
India Zemithang - Nelya site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) major non-breeding
Altitude 2100 - 4900 m Occasional altitudinal limits (min) 1375 m

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching / Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Marine & freshwater aquaculture / Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting / Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Domestic Dog (Canis familiaris) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Species mortality
Natural system modifications Other ecosystem modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluct Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents / Soil erosion, sedimentation Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents / Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Grus nigricollis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/11/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/11/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Gruidae (Cranes)
Species name author Przevalski, 1876
Population size 6600 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 64,100 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species